AimsTo determine the clinical predictors of live birth in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) undergoing frozen-thawed embryo transfer (F-ET), and to determine whether these parameters can be used to develop a clinical nomogram model capable of predicting live birth outcomes for these women.MethodsIn total, 1158 PCOS patients that were clinically pregnant following F-ET treatment were retrospectively enrolled in this study and randomly divided into the training cohort (n = 928) and the validation cohort (n = 230) at an 8:2 ratio. Relevant risk factors were selected via a logistic regression analysis approach based on the data from patients in the training cohort, and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated. A nomogram was constructed based on relevant risk factors, and its performance was assessed based on its calibration and discriminative ability.ResultsIn total, 20 variables were analyzed in the present study, of which five were found to be independently associated with the odds of live birth in univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, including advanced age, obesity, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and insulin resistance (IR). Having advanced age (OR:0.499, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.257 – 967), being obese (OR:0.506, 95% CI: 0.306 - 0.837), having higher TC levels (OR: 0.528, 95% CI: 0.423 - 0.660), having higher TG levels (OR: 0.585, 95% CI: 0.465 - 737), and exhibiting IR (OR:0.611, 95% CI: 0.416 - 0.896) were all independently associated with a reduced chance of achieving a live birth. A predictive nomogram incorporating these five variables was found to be well-calibrated and to exhibit good discriminatory capabilities, with an area under the curve (AUC) for the training group of 0.750 (95% CI, 0.709 - 0.788). In the independent validation cohort, this model also exhibited satisfactory goodness-of-fit and discriminative capabilities, with an AUC of 0.708 (95% CI, 0.615 - 0.781).ConclusionsThe nomogram developed in this study may be of value as a tool for predicting the odds of live birth for PCOS patients undergoing F-ET, and has the potential to improve the efficiency of pre-transfer management.
Heterotopic pregnancy (HP) is the simultaneous occurrence of intrauterine and ectopic pregnancies (EP). The incidence of HPs occurring spontaneously ranges from 1 in 10,000 to 1 in 30,000. However, this incidence is reported to be 1 in 100 pregnancies following artificial reproductive techniques. HP is a potentially life-threatening condition that is frequently misdiagnosed, as most diagnoses for HPs are delayed, and are only made after rupture of the EP. A high index of suspicion is, therefore, required for an accurate and timely diagnosis in order to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality, which currently stands at 1 in 200,000 live births. The most common risk factors include pelvic inflammatory disease, previous EP, assisted reproduction techniques, and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.
Transvaginal ultrasound is the gold standard for diagnosis. As detection of an intrauterine pregnancy often leads to the mistaken exclusion of a concomitant EP, a careful transvaginal scanning of the uterus and appendages should be performed in all females of reproductive age with a positive pregnancy test and red flags in anamnesis, and/or with clinical symptoms. Routine transvaginal ultrasound at Day 27 after embryo transfer could facilitate the diagnosis of HP; however, symptoms onset before or after Day 27 are clues to early diagnosis. MRI can be very helpful in diagnosing atypical cases.
Previous evidence indicates associations between the female reproductive tract microbiome composition and reproductive outcome in infertile patients undergoing assisted reproduction. We aimed to determine whether the endometrial microbiota composition is associated with reproductive outcomes of live birth, biochemical pregnancy, clinical miscarriage or no pregnancy.
Here, we present a multicentre prospective observational study using 16S rRNA gene sequencing to analyse endometrial fluid and biopsy samples before embryo transfer in a cohort of 342 infertile patients asymptomatic for infection undergoing assisted reproductive treatments.
A dysbiotic endometrial microbiota profile composed of Atopobium, Bifidobacterium, Chryseobacterium, Gardnerella, Haemophilus, Klebsiella, Neisseria, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus was associated with unsuccessful outcomes. In contrast, Lactobacillus was consistently enriched in patients with live birth outcomes.
Our findings indicate that endometrial microbiota composition before embryo transfer is a useful biomarker to predict reproductive outcome, offering an opportunity to further improve diagnosis and treatment strategies.
In previous retrospective studies, low serum progesterone level on the embryo transfer day is associated with lower clinical pregnancy and ongoing pregnancy rates. Whether adding progesterone in low serum progesterone patients can rescue the outcome, there is no sufficient evidence from randomized controlled studies.
This trial is a clinical randomized controlled study (high serum progesterone vs low serum progesterone 1:1, 1:1 randomization ratio of intervention vs the control group with low serum progesterone). The eligible hormone replacement therapy—frozen embryo transfer (HRT-FET) cycles, will be recruited and randomly assigned to two parallel groups when serum progesterone is < 7.24μg/l on the day of embryo transfer for D3. The intervention group will be extrally given intramuscular progesterone 40 mg per day from D3 to 8 weeks of gestation if clinical pregnancy. The primary outcome is the ongoing pregnancy (beyond 12 weeks of gestation) rate.
The findings of this study will provide strong evidence for whether the progesterone addition from the D3 in low serum progesterone patients can improve the outcome in the HRT-FET cycle.
ClinicalTrials.govNCT04248309. Registered on January 28, 2020