Aqueous Solution
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(FIVE YEARS 14920)



2022 ◽  
Vol 217 ◽  
pp. 106392
Rui Xu ◽  
Qian Li ◽  
Xiaolong Nan ◽  
Guoqing Jiang ◽  
Limin Wang ◽  

Coatings ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 76
Koya Tokutake ◽  
Shinji Okazaki ◽  
Shintaro Kodama

Organic coatings are applied as a corrosion prevention measure, but their effectiveness may degrade over time. In this study, the acceleration effects of typical degradation methods in non-defective vinyl ester resin organic coatings containing glass flakes such as high-temperature immersion and immersion in chemical accelerators are clarified using physiochemical techniques. Immersion in an acetic acid (AcOH) aqueous solution causes resin swelling, and the behaviors are quantitatively evaluated through gravimetric, thickness, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. Furthermore, a combined process of immersion in hydrofluoric acid and an AcOH aqueous solution reduces the electrical properties and eventually blisters the thick coating surface. This result suggests that an appropriate combination of the resin swelling and the glass degradation (glass dissolution and/or formation of the gap between glass and resin) decrease mechanical properties of the glass flake coating and causes blisters. In order to help the health diagnosis of the visually non-defective aged glass flake coating, the relationship between the electrical characteristic values and the invisible degradation by accelerated tests is finally indicated.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 4
Nataliia Hes ◽  
Artur Mylin ◽  
Svitlana Prudius

Catalytic conversion of fructose to levulinic and formic acids over tin-containing superacid (H0 = −14.52) mixed oxide was studied. Mesoporous ZrO2–SiO2–SnO2 (Zr:Si:Sn = 1:2:0.4) was synthesized by the sol–gel method. The fructose transformation was carried out in a rotated autoclave at 160–190 °C for 1–5 h using a 20 wt.% aqueous solution. The results showed that doping ZrO2–SiO2 samples with Sn4+ ions improved both fructose conversion and selectivity toward levulinic and formic acids. Under optimal conditions of 180 °C, 3.5 h and fructose to catalyst weight ratio 20:1, levulinic and formic acids yields were 80% and 90%, respectively, at complete fructose conversion. At this, humic substances formed in the quantity of 10 wt.% based on the target products.

Rajaa Bassam ◽  
Marouane El Alouani ◽  
Jabrane Maissara ◽  
El Hassan El Khattabi ◽  
Younes Rachdi ◽  

Thi Cuc Phuong Tran ◽  
Thi Phuong Nguyen ◽  
Thi Tinh Nguyen ◽  
Phuoc Cuong Le ◽  
Quoc Ba Tran ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 130 (1) ◽  
pp. 29-34
Ryuya SUZUKI ◽  
Seiji ONO ◽  
Yasunobu AKIYAMA ◽  
Takashi ASAKA ◽  
Yoshiharu MATSUMAE ◽  

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