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Gurunath Reddy ◽  
Sharvani G. S.

Secure element is a microprocessor chip that provides a secure environment to store the data, execute the applications and communicate the data to external entities securely. As secure element provides a promising security feature, it is used in various domains like IOT, automobile and mobile phones. Nowadays, the size of the security key and size of the data to be processed are increasing whereas the processing time of the secure element is expected to reduce. As the data size increases, the time to communicate the data between secure element and host increases. Host and secure element are connected via SPI over ISO IEC 7816-4 (T1) communication interface. In this paper, we evaluate the throughput of SPI over ISO IEC 7816-4 (T1) interface which is widely used in smart card domains. Throughput of the interface is evaluated by examining the time spent at communication interface for varying data size. We focus on understanding the parameters that affect the throughput of the SPI over T1 interface.

Pathology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 53 ◽  
pp. S32
Sharron Liang ◽  
Min Li Huang ◽  
Bin Wang ◽  
Min R. Qiu

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (13) ◽  
pp. 3535
Magdalena Śliwka-Kaszyńska ◽  
Marek Ślebioda ◽  
Anna Brillowska-Dąbrowska ◽  
Martyna Mroczyńska ◽  
Jakub Karczewski ◽  

The textile fragments of the funeral clothes found in the 17th and 18th century crypts were subjected to spectroscopic, spectrometric, and microbial investigation. The next-generation sequencing enabled DNA identification of microorganisms at the genus and in five cases to the species level. The soft hydrofluoric acid extraction method was optimized to isolate different classes of dyes from samples that had direct contact with human remains. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode matrix and tandem mass spectrometry detectors with electrospray ionization (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS) enabled the detection and identification of 34 colourants that are present in historical textiles. Some of them are thus far unknown and uncommon dyes. Indigo, madder, cochineal, turmeric, tannin-producing plant, and young fustic were identified as sources of dyes in textiles. Scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray detector (SEM-EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used to identify and characterize fibres and mordants in funeral gowns. Of the 23 textile samples tested, 19 were silk while the remaining four were recognized as wool. The presence of iron, aluminium, sodium, and calcium suggests that they were used as mordants. Traces of copper, silica, and magnesium might originate from the contaminants. The large amount of silver indicated the presence of metal wire in one of the dyed silk textiles. SEM images showed that textile fibres were highly degraded.

Kiran Fahd ◽  
Sitalakshmi Venkatraman

AbstractScholarly communication of knowledge is predominantly document-based in digital repositories, and researchers find it tedious to automatically capture and process the semantics among related articles. Despite the present digital era of big data, there is a lack of visual representations of the knowledge present in scholarly articles, and a time-saving approach for a literature search and visual navigation is warranted. The majority of knowledge display tools cannot cope with current big data trends and pose limitations in meeting the requirements of automatic knowledge representation, storage, and dynamic visualization. To address this limitation, the main aim of this paper is to model the visualization of unstructured data and explore the feasibility of achieving visual navigation for researchers to gain insight into the knowledge hidden in scientific articles of digital repositories. Contemporary topics of research and practice, including modifiable risk factors leading to a dramatic increase in Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia, warrant deeper insight into the evidence-based knowledge available in the literature. The goal is to provide researchers with a visual-based easy traversal through a digital repository of research articles. This paper takes the first step in proposing a novel integrated model using knowledge maps and next-generation graph datastores to achieve a semantic visualization with domain-specific knowledge, such as dementia risk factors. The model facilitates a deep conceptual understanding of the literature by automatically establishing visual relationships among the extracted knowledge from the big data resources of research articles. It also serves as an automated tool for a visual navigation through the knowledge repository for faster identification of dementia risk factors reported in scholarly articles. Further, it facilitates a semantic visualization and domain-specific knowledge discovery from a large digital repository and their associations. In this study, the implementation of the proposed model in the Neo4j graph data repository, along with the results achieved, is presented as a proof of concept. Using scholarly research articles on dementia risk factors as a case study, automatic knowledge extraction, storage, intelligent search, and visual navigation are illustrated. The implementation of contextual knowledge and its relationship for a visual exploration by researchers show promising results in the knowledge discovery of dementia risk factors. Overall, this study demonstrates the significance of a semantic visualization with the effective use of knowledge maps and paves the way for extending visual modeling capabilities in the future.

Aurelio Salerno ◽  
Paolo A. Netti

In the last decade, additive manufacturing (AM) processes have updated the fields of biomaterials science and drug delivery as they promise to realize bioengineered multifunctional devices and implantable tissue engineering (TE) scaffolds virtually designed by using computer-aided design (CAD) models. However, the current technological gap between virtual scaffold design and practical AM processes makes it still challenging to realize scaffolds capable of encoding all structural and cell regulatory functions of the native extracellular matrix (ECM) of health and diseased tissues. Indeed, engineering porous scaffolds capable of sequestering and presenting even a complex array of biochemical and biophysical signals in a time- and space-regulated manner, require advanced automated platforms suitable of processing simultaneously biomaterials, cells, and biomolecules at nanometric-size scale. The aim of this work was to review the recent scientific literature about AM fabrication of drug delivery scaffolds for TE. This review focused on bioactive molecule loading into three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds, and their release effects on cell fate and tissue growth. We reviewed CAD-based strategies, such as bioprinting, to achieve passive and stimuli-responsive drug delivery scaffolds for TE and cancer precision medicine. Finally, we describe the authors’ perspective regarding the next generation of CAD techniques and the advantages of AM, microfluidic, and soft lithography integration for enhancing 3D porous scaffold bioactivation toward functional bioengineered tissues and organs.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Isabelle Oliver-Petit ◽  
Thomas Edouard ◽  
Virginie Jacques ◽  
Marie Bournez ◽  
Audrey Cartault ◽  

ContextCongenital hypothyroidism (CH) is related to dyshormonogenesis in 15% to 40% of the world population and associated with homozygous or heterozygous variants in the main genes of the hormone synthesis pathway. Emerging diagnostic tools, such as next-generation sequencing (NGS), have been used to efficiently explore panels of genes and identify complex mechanisms of pathogenesis.ObjectiveWe explored 19 candidate genes known to be causative for permanent or transient CH to evaluate the role of complex gene variations in CH phenotype.Patients, Design and SettingUsing the NGS approach, we studied 65 newborns with thyroid dyshormonogenesis (TDH). New variants were assessed in silico for pathogenicity.ResultsAmong the 65 infants, 56.9% presented a variant in one or more genes of the thyroid hormone synthesis axis. We identified homozygous or compound heterozygous variants in the TG, DUOX2, TPO, or SLC5A5 genes in 10 infants and heterozygous variants in DUOX2, TG, TPO, and TSHR in 19 others. In seven cases, a heterozygous variant in the TG gene was the unique anomaly detected, but related to disturbed hormonal balance. Oligogenic variants were found in eight infants associated with severe CH and goiter in five of them.ConclusionThe systematic exploration of genes involved in thyroid hormone synthesis by NGS in TDH showed high diagnostic relevance. Oligogenic inheritance could be related to phenotypic heterogeneity and a high frequency of goiter.

BMC Neurology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Bin Chen ◽  
Zheng Chen ◽  
Yi-shu Yang ◽  
Gui-lan Cai ◽  
Xiao-jiao Xu ◽  

Abstract Background Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common helminthic infection of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium. Accurate and early diagnosis of NCC remains challenging due to its heterogeneous clinical manifestations, neuroimaging deficits, variable sensitivity, and specificity of serological tests. Next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based pathogen analysis in patient’s cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with NCC infection has recently been reported indicating its diagnostic efficacy. In this case study, we report the diagnosis of a NCC patient with a symptomatic history of over 20 years using NGS analysis and further confirmation of the pathology by immunological tests. Case presentation This study reports the clinical imaging and immunological features of a patient with a recurrent headache for more than 20 years, which worsened gradually with the symptom of fever for more than 7 years and paroxysmal amaurosis for more than 1 year. By utilizing NGS technique, the pathogen was detected in patient’s CSF, and the presence of Taenia solium-DNA was confirmed by a positive immunological reaction to cysticercus IgG antibody in CSF and serum samples. The symptoms of the patient were alleviated, and the CSF condition was improved substantially after the anti-helminthic treatment. Conclusions This study suggests that combining CSF NGS with cysticercus IgG testing may be a highly promising approach for diagnosing the challenging cases of NCC. Further studies are needed to evaluate the parasitic DNA load in patients’ CSF for the diagnosis of disease severity, stage, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (13) ◽  
pp. 3839
Paris Jafari ◽  
Alexandre Luscher ◽  
Thissa Siriwardena ◽  
Murielle Michetti ◽  
Yok-Ai Que ◽  

Multidrug resistance infections are the main cause of failure in the pro-regenerative cell-mediated therapy of burn wounds. The collagen-based matrices for delivery of cells could be potential substrates to support bacterial growth and subsequent lysis of the collagen leading to a cell therapy loss. In this article, we report the development of a new generation of cell therapy formulations with the capacity to resist infections through the bactericidal effect of antimicrobial peptide dendrimers and the anti-virulence effect of anti-quorum sensing MvfR (PqsR) system compounds, which are incorporated into their formulation. Anti-quorum sensing compounds limit the pathogenicity and antibiotic tolerance of pathogenic bacteria involved in the burn wound infections, by inhibiting their virulence pathways. For the first time, we report a biological cell therapy dressing incorporating live progenitor cells, antimicrobial peptide dendrimers, and anti-MvfR compounds, which exhibit bactericidal and anti-virulence properties without compromising the viability of the progenitor cells.

2021 ◽  
Lauria Claeys ◽  
Silvia Storoni ◽  
Marelise Eekhoff ◽  
Mariet Elting ◽  
Lisanne Wisse ◽  

AbstractOsteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) comprises a heterogeneous group of patients who share bone fragility and deformities as the main characteristics, albeit with different degrees of severity. Phenotypic variation also exists in other connective tissue aspects of the disease, complicating disease classification and disease course prediction. Although collagen type I defects are long established as the primary cause of the bone pathology, we are still far from comprehending the complete mechanism. In the last years, the advent of next generation sequencing has triggered the discovery of many new genetic causes for OI, helping to draw its molecular landscape. It has become clear that, in addition to collagen type I genes, OI can be caused by multiple proteins connected to different parts of collagen biosynthesis. The production of collagen entails a complex process, starting from the production of the collagen Iα1 and collagen Iα2 chains in the endoplasmic reticulum, during and after which procollagen is subjected to a plethora of posttranslational modifications by chaperones. After reaching the Golgi organelle, procollagen is destined to the extracellular matrix where it forms collagen fibrils. Recently discovered mutations in components of the retrograde transport of chaperones highlight its emerging role as critical contributor of OI development. This review offers an overview of collagen regulation in the context of recent gene discoveries, emphasizing the significance of transport disruptions in the OI mechanism. We aim to motivate exploration of skeletal fragility in OI from the perspective of these pathways to identify regulatory points which can hint to therapeutic targets.

2021 ◽  
Vol 102 (6) ◽  
Martin N. Mayanja ◽  
Frank N. Mwiine ◽  
Julius J. Lutwama ◽  
Alfred Ssekagiri ◽  
Moses Egesa ◽  

Mosquito-transmitted arboviruses constitute a large proportion of emerging infectious diseases that are both a public health problem and a threat to animal populations. Many such viruses were identified in East Africa, a region where they remain important and from where new arboviruses may emerge. We set out to describe and review the relevant mosquito-borne viruses that have been identified specifically in Uganda. We focused on the discovery, burden, mode of transmission, animal hosts and clinical manifestation of those previously involved in disease outbreaks. A search for mosquito-borne arboviruses detected in Uganda was conducted using search terms ‘Arboviruses in Uganda’ and ‘Mosquitoes and Viruses in Uganda’ in PubMed and Google Scholar in 2020. Twenty-four mosquito-borne viruses from different animal hosts, humans and mosquitoes were documented. The majority of these were from family Peribunyaviridae, followed by Flaviviridae, Togaviridae, Phenuiviridae and only one each from family Rhabdoviridae and Reoviridae. Sixteen (66.7 %) of the viruses were associated with febrile illnesses. Ten (41.7 %) of them were first described locally in Uganda. Six of these are a public threat as they have been previously associated with disease outbreaks either within or outside Uganda. Historically, there is a high burden and endemicity of arboviruses in Uganda. Given the many diverse mosquito species known in the country, there is also a likelihood of many undescribed mosquito-borne viruses. New generation diagnostic platforms have great potential to identify new viruses. Indeed, four novel viruses, two of which were from humans (Ntwetwe and Nyangole viruses) and two from mosquitoes (Kibale and Mburo viruses) including the 2010 yellow fever virus (YFV) outbreak were identified in the last decade using next generation sequencing. Given the unbiased approach of detection of viruses by this technology, its use will undoubtedly be critically important in the characterization of mosquito viromes which in turn will inform other diagnostic efforts.

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