biofuel production
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Fuel ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 313 ◽  
pp. 123023
Nagamalai Sakthi Vignesh ◽  
Michael Rahul Soosai ◽  
Wen Yi Chia ◽  
Safiyyah N. Wahid ◽  
Perumal Varalakshmi ◽  

Fuel ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 312 ◽  
pp. 122934
Abhinay Thakur ◽  
Ashish Kumar ◽  
Savas Kaya ◽  
Dai-Viet N. Vo ◽  
Ajit Sharma

2022 ◽  
Vol 154 ◽  
pp. 111829
B. Bharathiraja ◽  
J. Iyyappan ◽  
M. Gopinath ◽  
J. Jayamuthunagai ◽  
R. PraveenKumar

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Zihao Cao ◽  
Xiaotong Shen ◽  
Xujing Wang ◽  
Baohua Zhu ◽  
Kehou Pan ◽  

Microalgae are considered promising resources for producing a variety of high-value-added products, especially for lipids and pigments. Alkalophilic microalgae have more advantages than other microalgae when cultured outdoors on a large scale. The present study investigated the comprehensive effects of different nitrogen concentrations on fucoxanthin (Fx), lipids accumulation and the fatty acid profile of the alkaliphilic microalgae Nitzschia sp. NW129 to evaluate the potential for simultaneous production of Fx and biofuels. Fx and Lipids amassed in a coordinated growth-dependent manner in response to various concentrations, reaching 18.18 mg g–1 and 40.67% dry weight (DW), respectively. The biomass of Nitzschia sp. NW129 was 0.58 ± 0.02 g L–1 in the medium at the concentration of 117.65 mM. The highest productivities of Fx (1.44 mg L–1 d–1) and lipid (19.95 ± 1.29 mg L–1 d–1) were obtained concurrently at this concentration. Furthermore, the fatty acid methyl esters revealed excellent biofuel properties with an appropriate value of the degree unsaturation (49.97), cetane number (62.72), and cold filter plugging point (2.37), which met the European standards for biofuel production (EN14214). These results provided a reliable strategy for further industrialization and comprehensive production of biofuel and Fx by using the alkaliphilic microalgal Nitzschia sp. NW129.

2022 ◽  
Armando Mendoza-Flores ◽  
Clara Elizabeth Galindo-Sánchez ◽  
M. del Pilar Sánchez-Saavedra

Abstract The irradiance level used to the microalgae cultures can modify the growth and proximate composition, however, this response is specie specific. The dinoflagellate group had the potential to be used as a source to biofuel production. In this study was evaluated the effect of five irradiance levels (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 µmol photon m-2 s­-1) on the growth rate, proximal composition, pigment content, and photosynthesis of Amphidinium carterae. The highest cell concentration was for the cultures at 150 µmol photon m-2 s-1 (130 × 103 cells mL-1), and the lowest values for 50 µmol photon m-2 s-1 (49 × 103 cells mL-1). The cultures maintained under the low irradiance (50 µmol photon m-2 s-1) had the highest values of total dry weight (TDW) (13418 pg cell-1), organic dry weight (ODW) (3836 pg cell-1), and inorganic dry weight (IDW) (9582 pg cell-1). The protein content as the general trend increases significantly concerning the irradiance level, with the higher values (87.47 pg cell-1) at high irradiance (250 µmol photon m-2 s-1). Carbohydrate content was different by the effect of irradiance, with the higher values (32.85 pg cell-1) at the low irradiance used (50 µmol photon m-2 s-1). Lipid content was modified by the effect of irradiance, with the highest values (534.74 pg cell-1) at the low irradiance used (50 µmol photon m-2 s-1). As a general trend, the high irradiances increased the photosynthesis curves. These findings demonstrate that the strain of A. carterae used in this work can grow in high irradiances (100 to 250 µmol photon m-2 s-1) and increase significantly the lipid content on low irradiance used (50 µmol photon m-2 s-1).

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 78
Joana Terra-Matos ◽  
Marta Oliveira Teixeira ◽  
Cátia Santos-Pereira ◽  
Henrique Noronha ◽  
Lucília Domingues ◽  

Yeast-based bioethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates (LH) is an attractive and sustainable alternative for biofuel production. However, the presence of acetic acid (AA) in LH is still a major problem. Indeed, above certain concentrations, AA inhibits yeast fermentation and triggers a regulated cell death (RCD) process mediated by the mitochondria and vacuole. Understanding the mechanisms involved in AA-induced RCD (AA-RCD) may thus help select robust fermentative yeast strains, providing novel insights to improve lignocellulosic ethanol (LE) production. Herein, we hypothesized that zinc vacuolar transporters are involved in vacuole-mediated AA-RCD, since zinc enhances ethanol production and zinc-dependent catalase and superoxide dismutase protect from AA-RCD. In this work, zinc limitation sensitized wild-type cells to AA-RCD, while zinc supplementation resulted in a small protective effect. Cells lacking the vacuolar zinc transporter Zrt3 were highly resistant to AA-RCD, exhibiting reduced vacuolar dysfunction. Moreover, zrt3Δ cells displayed higher ethanol productivity than their wild-type counterparts, both when cultivated in rich medium with AA (0.29 g L−1 h−1 versus 0.11 g L−1 h−1) and in an LH (0.73 g L−1 h−1 versus 0.55 g L−1 h−1). Overall, the deletion of ZRT3 emerges as a promising strategy to increase strain robustness in LE industrial production.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Dorothee Baur ◽  
Philip Emmerich ◽  
Manuel Johann Baumann ◽  
Marcel Weil

Abstract Background The widespread use of sustainable energy technologies is a key element in the transformation of the energy system from fossil-based to zero-carbon. In line with this, technology acceptance is of great importance as resistance from the public can slow down or hinder the construction of energy technology projects. The current study assesses the social acceptance of three energy technologies relevant for the German energy transition: stationary battery storage, biofuel production plants and hydrogen fuel station. Methods An online survey was conducted to examine the public’s general and local acceptance of energy technologies. Explored factors included general and local acceptance, public concerns, trust in relevant stakeholders and attitudes towards financial support. Results The results indicate that general acceptance for all technologies is slightly higher than local acceptance. In addition, we discuss which public concerns exist with regard to the respective technologies and how they are more strongly associated with local than general acceptance. Further, we show that trust in stakeholders and attitudes towards financial support is relatively high across the technologies discussed. Conclusions Taken together, the study provides evidence for the existence of a “general–local” gap, despite measuring general and local acceptance at the same level of specificity using a public sample. In addition, the collected data can provide stakeholders with an overview of worries that might need to be addressed when planning to implement a certain energy project.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
G. Loganathan ◽  
M. Kannan

Biofuel production offers a non-fossil fuel that can be utilized in modern engines without any redesign. Regardless of receiving rising attention, many researchers have explored microalgae-based biofuel production and found biodiesel production is cost-effective compared to petroleum-centered conventional fuels. The primary reason is that the lipid accumulation of microalgae is possible. An efficient technique is proposed for optimized biodiesel manufacturing with microalgae through an IoT device with the hybrid particle swarm optimization (HPSO) algorithm for elapsing such drawbacks. First, the component of biodiesel is determined. Then, from the components, the temperature value is sensed through the IoT device. Based on the obtained temperature, the reaction parameters are optimized with HPSO to increase productivity and reduce cost. Finally, we observed performance and comparative analysis. The experimental results contrasted with the existent particle swarm optimization (PSO) and genetic algorithm (GA) concerning iteration’s temperature, concentration, production, and fitness. The present HPSO algorithm has differed from the existing PSO and GA concerning IoT sensed temperature and production function. Fitness value and instance concentration are the performance parameters. It varies based on the iteration values. Thus, the proposed optimized biodiesel production is advanced when weighed down with the top-notch methods.

Biosensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 28
Jackie Arnold ◽  
Jordan Chapman ◽  
Myra Arnold ◽  
Cerasela Zoica Dinu

Enzymes are proteins that control the efficiency and effectiveness of biological reactions and systems, as well as of engineered biomimetic processes. This review highlights current applications of a diverse range of enzymes for biofuel production, plastics, and chemical waste management, as well as for detergent, textile, and food production and preservation industries respectively. Challenges regarding the transposition of enzymes from their natural purpose and environment into synthetic practice are discussed. For example, temperature and pH-induced enzyme fragilities, short shelf life, low-cost efficiency, poor user-controllability, and subsequently insufficient catalytic activity were shown to decrease pertinence and profitability in large-scale production considerations. Enzyme immobilization was shown to improve and expand upon enzyme usage within a profit and impact-oriented commercial world and through enzyme-material and interfaces integration. With particular focus on the growing biomedical market, examples of enzyme immobilization within or onto hyaluronic acid (HA)-based complexes are discussed as a definable way to improve upon and/or make possible the next generation of medical undertakings. As a polysaccharide formed in every living organism, HA has proven beneficial in biomedicine for its high biocompatibility and controllable biodegradability, viscoelasticity, and hydrophilicity. Complexes developed with this molecule have been utilized to selectively deliver drugs to a desired location and at a desired rate, improve the efficiency of tissue regeneration, and serve as a viable platform for biologically accepted sensors. In similar realms of enzyme immobilization, HA’s ease in crosslinking allows the molecule to user-controllably enhance the design of a given platform in terms of both chemical and physical characteristics to thus best support successful and sustained enzyme usage. Such examples do not only demonstrate the potential of enzyme-based applications but further, emphasize future market trends and accountability.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262304
Alaa Emara Rabee ◽  
Amr A. Sayed Alahl ◽  
Mebarek Lamara ◽  
Suzanne L. Ishaq

Lignocellulosic biomass such as barley straw is a renewable and sustainable alternative to traditional feeds and could be used as bioenergy sources; however, low hydrolysis rate reduces the fermentation efficiency. Understanding the degradation and colonization of barley straw by rumen bacteria is the key step to improve the utilization of barley straw in animal feeding or biofuel production. This study evaluated the hydrolysis of barley straw as a result of the inoculation by rumen fluid of camel and sheep. Ground barley straw was incubated anaerobically with rumen inocula from three fistulated camels (FC) and three fistulated sheep (FR) for a period of 72 h. The source of rumen inoculum did not affect the disappearance of dry matter (DMD), neutral detergent fiber (NDFD). Group FR showed higher production of glucose, xylose, and gas; while higher ethanol production was associated with cellulosic hydrolysates obtained from FC group. The diversity and structure of bacterial communities attached to barley straw was investigated by Illumina Mi-Seq sequencing of V4-V5 region of 16S rRNA genes. The bacterial community was dominated by phylum Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. The dominant genera were RC9_gut_group, Ruminococcus, Saccharofermentans, Butyrivibrio, Succiniclasticum, Selenomonas, and Streptococcus, indicating the important role of these genera in lignocellulose fermentation in the rumen. Group FR showed higher RC9_gut_group and group FC revealed higher Ruminococcus, Saccharofermentans, and Butyrivibrio. Higher enzymes activities (cellulase and xylanase) were associated with group FC. Thus, bacterial communities in camel and sheep have a great potential to improve the utilization lignocellulosic material in animal feeding and the production of biofuel and enzymes.

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