T Cells
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2022 ◽  
Vol 74 ◽  
pp. 39-45
Rigel J Kishton ◽  
Suman K Vodnala ◽  
Raul Vizcardo ◽  
Nicholas P Restifo

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Agnese Losurdo ◽  
Caterina Scirgolea ◽  
Giorgia Alvisi ◽  
Jolanda Brummelman ◽  
Valentina Errico ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Zhonghua Huang ◽  
Hua Xu ◽  
Qinqin Min ◽  
Zhenguo Li ◽  
Jiaxin Bi ◽  

Abstract Background Adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD) often presents with systemic multiple lymphadenopathy. In addition to the common paracortical and mixed patterns in AOSD lymph node histopathological features, other morphological patterns include diffuse, necrotic, and follicular patterns. However, to date, there have been few reports on the histopathological description of AOSD lymph nodes. Case presentation An 18-year-old woman presented 2 months earlier with pain in her large joints with painless rash formation; bilateral posterior cervical lymph node, left supraclavicular lymph node, and left posterior axillary lymph node enlargement, and no tenderness. Left cervical lymph node resection was performed for pathological examination. The lymph node structure was basically preserved, and subcapsular and medullary sinus structures were observed. Many histiocytes in the sinus were observed, the cortical area was reduced, a few lymphoid follicles of different sizes were observed, and some atrophy and hyperplasia were noted. The lymphoid tissue in the paracortical region of the lymph node was diffusely proliferative and enlarged, mainly comprising histiocytes with abundant cytoplasm, immunoblasts and numerous lymphocytes with slightly irregular, small- to medium-sized nuclei. Nuclear karyorrhexis was easily observed, showing a few nuclear debris and the “starry sky” phenomenon, accompanied by abundantly branching high endothelial small vessels with few scattered plasma cells and eosinophil infiltration. Lymphoid follicle immunophenotype with reactive proliferative changes was observed. Approximately 40% of the cells in the paracortical region were positive for Ki-67, and the histiocytes expressed CD68, CD163, and some expressed S-100, with the absence of myeloperoxidase. The immunoblasts expressed CD30 and CD20, not ALK or CD15. Background small- to medium-sized T cells expressed CD2, CD3, CD5, CD7, CD4, and CD8; the number of CD8-positive T cells was slightly predominant, and a small number of T cells expressed granzyme B and T-cell intracellular antigen 1. The patient received a comprehensive medical treatment after the operation, and her condition was stable without progression at the 11-month follow-up evaluation. Conclusions The pathological features of AOSD lymphadenopathy raises the awareness of AOSD among pathologists and clinicians and aids in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of AOSD lymphadenopathy from other reactive lymphadenopathies (lupus lymphadenitis, etc.) and lymphomas.

Gut ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. gutjnl-2021-324170
Ningning Liu ◽  
Xiaomei Wang ◽  
Clifford John Steer ◽  
Guisheng Song

ObjectiveKupffer cells (KCs) protect against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by communicating with other immune cells. However, the underlying mechanism(s) of this process is incompletely understood.DesignFVB/NJ mice were hydrodynamically injected with AKT/Ras and Sleeping Beauty transposon to induce HCC. Mini-circle and Sleeping Beauty were used to overexpress microRNA-206 in KCs of mice. Flow cytometry and immunostaining were used to evaluate the change in the immune system.ResultsHydrodynamic injection of AKT/Ras into mice drove M2 polarisation of KCs and depletion of cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) and promoted HCC development. M1-to-M2 transition of KCs impaired microRNA-206 biogenesis. By targeting Klf4 (kruppel like factor 4) and, thereby, enhancing the production of M1 markers including C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), microRNA-206 promoted M1 polarisation of macrophages. Indeed, microRNA-206-mediated increase of CCL2 facilitated hepatic recruitment of CTLs via CCR2. Disrupting each component of the KLF4/CCL2/CCR2 axis impaired the ability of microRNA-206 to drive M1 polarisation of macrophages and recruit CTLs. In AKT/Ras mice, KC-specific expression of microRNA-206 drove M1 polarisation of KCs and hepatic recruitment of CTLs and fully prevented HCC, while 100% of control mice died from HCC. Disrupting the interaction between microRNA-206 and Klf4 in KCs and depletion of CD8+ T cells impaired the ability of miR-206 to prevent HCC.ConclusionsM2 polarisation of KCs is a major contributor of HCC in AKT/Ras mice. MicroRNA-206, by driving M1 polarisation of KCs, promoted the recruitment of CD8+ T cells and prevented HCC, suggesting its potential use as an immunotherapeutic approach.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Irene Carlon-Andres ◽  
Tomas Malinauskas ◽  
Sergi Padilla-Parra

AbstractThe HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) mediates viral entry into the host cell. Although the highly dynamic nature of Env intramolecular conformations has been shown with single molecule spectroscopy in vitro, the bona fide Env intra- and intermolecular mechanics when engaged with live T cells remains unknown. We used two photon fast fluorescence lifetime imaging detection of single-molecule Förster Resonance Energy Transfer occurring between fluorescent labels on HIV-1 Env on native virions. Our observations reveal Env dynamics at two levels: transitions between different intramolecular conformations and intermolecular interactions between Env within the viral membrane. Furthermore, we show that three broad neutralizing anti-Env antibodies directed to different epitopes restrict Env intramolecular dynamics and interactions between adjacent Env molecules when engaged with living T cells. Importantly, our results show that Env-Env interactions depend on efficient virus maturation, and that is disrupted upon binding of Env to CD4 or by neutralizing antibodies. Thus, this study illuminates how different intramolecular conformations and distribution of Env molecules mediate HIV-1 Env–T cell interactions in real time and therefore might control immune evasion.

eLife ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Fernando Y Maeda ◽  
Jurriaan JH van Haaren ◽  
David B Langley ◽  
Daniel Christ ◽  
Norma W Andrews ◽  

B-cell receptor (BCR)-mediated antigen internalization and presentation are essential for humoral memory immune responses. Antigen encountered by B-cells is often tightly associated with the surface of pathogens and/or antigen-presenting cells. Internalization of such antigens requires myosin-mediated traction forces and extracellular release of lysosomal enzymes, but the mechanism triggering lysosomal exocytosis is unknown. Here we show that BCR-mediated recognition of antigen tethered to beads, to planar lipid-bilayers or expressed on cell surfaces causes localized plasma membrane (PM) permeabilization, a process that requires BCR signaling and non-muscle myosin II activity. B-cell permeabilization triggers PM repair responses involving lysosomal exocytosis, and B-cells permeabilized by surface-associated antigen internalize more antigen than cells that remain intact. Higher affinity antigens cause more B-cell permeabilization and lysosomal exocytosis and are more efficiently presented to T-cells. Thus, PM permeabilization by surface-associated antigen triggers a lysosome-mediated B-cell resealing response, providing the extracellular hydrolases that facilitate antigen internalization and presentation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (617) ◽  
Pauline P. Chen ◽  
Alma-Martina Cepika ◽  
Rajni Agarwal-Hashmi ◽  
Gopin Saini ◽  
Molly J. Uyeda ◽  
T Cells ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (11) ◽  
Lindsey M. Ludwig ◽  
Katrina M. Hawley ◽  
David B. Banks ◽  
Anika T. Thomas-Toth ◽  
Bruce R. Blazar ◽  

AbstractBH3 mimetics are increasingly used as anti-cancer therapeutics either alone or in conjunction with other chemotherapies. However, mounting evidence has also demonstrated that BH3 mimetics modulate varied amounts of apoptotic signaling in healthy immune populations. In order to maximize their clinical potential, it will be essential to understand how BH3 mimetics affect discrete immune populations and to determine how BH3 mimetic pressure causes immune system adaptation. Here we focus on the BCL-2 specific inhibitor venetoclax (ABT-199) and its effects following short-term and long-term BCL-2 blockade on T cell subsets. Seven day “short-term” ex vivo and in vivo BCL-2 inhibition led to divergent cell death sensitivity patterns in CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, and Tregs resulting in shifting of global T cell populations towards a more memory T cell state with increased expression of BCL-2, BCL-XL, and MCL-1. However, twenty-eight day “long-term” BCL-2 blockade following T cell-depleted bone marrow transplantation did not lead to changes in the global T cell landscape. Despite the lack of changes in T cell proportions, animals treated with venetoclax developed CD8+ and CD4+ T cells with high levels of BCL-2 and were more resistant to apoptotic stimuli following expansion post-transplant. Further, we demonstrate through RNA profiling that T cells adapt while under BCL-2 blockade post-transplant and develop a more activated genotype. Taken together, these data emphasize the importance of evaluating how BH3 mimetics affect the immune system in different treatment modalities and disease contexts and suggest that venetoclax should be further explored as an immunomodulatory compound.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Shun Zhang ◽  
Junhui Wan ◽  
Minjie Chen ◽  
Desheng Cai ◽  
Junlan Xu ◽  

Tumor-infiltrating immune cells, associated with tumor progression, are promising prognostic biomarkers. However, the relationship between levels of gene expression and that of immune cell infiltration in cervical cancer prognosis is unknown. In this study, three cervical cancer gene expression microarrays (GSE6791, GSE63678 and GSE55940) were obtained from the GEO database. The IDO1 gene was identified by differentially expressed gene screening. The gene expression profiles of TCGA and GTEx databases along with comprehensive bioinformatics analysis identified that the IDO1 gene was upregulated in cervical cancer with significant difference in expression at different N stages. In addition, it was also upregulated in HPV16 positive sample. The pan-cancer analysis identified that IDO1 was highly expressed in most cancers. TIMER analysis revealed that the expression of IDO1 in CESC shows positive correlation with CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, neutrophils, dendritic cells. IDO1 expression showed remarkable positive correlation with all immune cell markers except M1 macrophages. CD8+ T cell infiltration GSEA results showed that IDO1 was mainly associated with tumor immune-related signaling pathways.

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