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F1000Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 698
Shabbir Ahmed Sany ◽  
Taukir Tanjim ◽  
Md Ikbal Hossain

Background: Low back pain (LBP) is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. Different studies showed the high prevalence of LBP among medical students. However, no study has been conducted on Bangladeshi medical students to estimate the prevalence of LBP. This study evaluated the prevalence, characteristics, and associated risk factors of LBP among medical students in Bangladesh. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from October to December 2020 among randomly selected 270 medical students and medical interns in Faridpur Medical College, Bangladesh, using an online questionnaire. In data analysis, chi-square test and binary logistic regression were performed, and a p-value of < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. Results: A total of 207 participants responded fully to the survey, and were included in the analysis. The mean age of the participants was 22.36 ± 1.915 years. The point, 6-month, and 12-month prevalence of LBP was 25.6%, 46.9%, and 63.3%, respectively. In most participants, LBP was localized (53.2%), recurrent (64.9%), undiagnosed (70.8%), affected for a short period (55%), and relieved without receiving any treatment (60.4%). Participants who had a significantly higher 12-month prevalence of LBP included females (72.2% vs 52.2%), with BMI >25 kg/m2 (73.2% vs 56.7%), those who performed physical activity at low to moderate frequency (72.4% vs 29.5%), those who spent > 6 hours/day by sitting (71.3% vs 45.3%), and those who did not have enough rest time (92.7% vs 56%). Ergonomic features of chairs, such as having back support, adjustable back support, and adjustable sitting surface, significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the outcomes. Conclusion: The prevalence of LBP among medical students in Bangladesh was high, and most of the risk factors associated with the high prevalence of LBP were modifiable. Hence, LBP can be prevented by implementing preventive strategies and providing ergonomic training and physical activity facilities.

2021 ◽  
Daffalla A'lamElhuda ◽  
Leenah Mohammed S.M ◽  
Alamin Mustafa .E. M

Abstract Background: “Is COVID-19 pandemic the end of classical class room based education?” the most frequent question nowadays after the forced restrictions which included educational intuition lockdown، objectives, this paper aimed to study the perception of medical students towards virtual learning during COVID-19 pandemic at faculties of medicine at Alzaiem Alazhari and Khartoum universities in Sudan , 2021.Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional faculty -based study in which self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 357 medical students at faculties of medicine at Alzaiem Alazhari university and university of Khartoum. Respondents were selected using simple random sampling, and data was analyzed using SPSS 26. Results: This study revealed that the average number of hours that spent on virtual learning before and during the COVID-19 pandemic were statistically significant (p<0.05), with average of 1.9 hours per day before the pandemic and average of more than 3 hours per day during the pandemic (57.9%) .Moreover, the majority of the participants 77.9% (n=279) thought that virtual learning did not successfully replace the face to face classical teaching especially the clinical medical students 87.2% (n=312) who claimed that clinical skills cannot be taught virtually and they need the direct patient contact education in order to practice the clinical skills in a proper way.Conclusion: Virtual learning in these two medical faculties was found to be well perceived, because its pros outweighed its cons, as it was the most appropriate method to use in order to continue the education process during the pandemic.

Jasmina Sterz ◽  
Niklas Gutenberger ◽  
Maria-Christina Stefanescu ◽  
Uwe Zinßer ◽  
Lena Bepler ◽  

Abstract Purpose Every physician must be able to sufficiently master medical emergencies, especially in medical areas where emergencies occur frequently such as in the emergency room or emergency surgery. This contrasts with the observation that medical students and young residents often feel insufficiently prepared to handle medical emergencies. It is therefore necessary to train them in the treatment of emergency patients. The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of the assignment of manikin versus simulated patients during a training for undergraduate medical students on learning outcomes and the perceived realism. Methods The study had a prospective cross-over design and took place in a 3-day emergency medicine training for undergraduate medical students. Students completed three teaching units (‘chest pain’, ‘impaired consciousness’, ‘dyspnea’), either with manikin or simulated patient. Using a questionnaire after each unit, overall impression, didactics, content, the quality of practical exercises, and the learning success were evaluated. The gained competences were measured in a 6-station objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) at the end of training. Results 126 students participated. Students rated simulated patients as significantly more realistic than manikins regarding the possibility to carry out examination techniques and taking medical history. 54.92% of the students would prefer to train with simulated patients in the future. Regarding the gained competences for ‘chest pain’ and ‘impaired consciousness’, students who trained with a manikin scored less in the OSCE station than the simulated patients-group. Conclusion Simulated patients are rated more realistic than manikins and seem to be superior to manikins regarding gained competence.

Shahrzad Shokati ◽  
Zahra Kavian ◽  
Mansour Shahraki ◽  
Mona Afshari

Background: Depression, as the second leading cause of dysfunction, is one of the most common mental health disorders. Given that micronutrients have always played a significant role in all physical and psychological aspects of individuals. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship of dietary intake of Selenium, Magnesium, Zinc, and anthropometric profiles with depression in female students at Zahedan University of Medical Science, Zahedan, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 200 female medical students of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences participated. The amount of dietary intake of Selenium, Magnesium, and Zinc were measured by Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). For determining the depression score, Beck anxiety questionnaire was administered. To analyze the data, SPSS 22 software was used. Results: The mean of age, body mass index, waist-to hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio were 23.41 ± 2.26 years, 23.54 ± 4.49 kg/m2, 0.85 ± 0.08, and 0.59±0.10, respectively. The mean daily intake of Magnesium, Zinc, and Selenium were 196.37 ± 42.08 mg, 7.38 ± 3.41 mg, and 106.52 ± 31.69 mg, respectively. The mean of depression score was 31.21±10.58. Zinc and Magnesium intake had a significantly strong inverse relationship with depression score and anthropometric indices. Conclusions: The findings showed that Zinc and Magnesium intake as well as anthropometric indices had a significant inverse relationship with depression score. However, the association between Selenium intake and depression score was not significant.

2021 ◽  
Vol 32 (3) ◽  
pp. 107-111
So-Jin Lee ◽  
Chul-Soo Park ◽  
Bong-Jo Kim ◽  
Cheol-Soon Lee ◽  
Boseok Cha ◽  

Patricia V. Hernandez ◽  
Dana Razzano ◽  
Nicole D. Riddle ◽  
John T. Fallon ◽  
Humayun K. Islam ◽  

Context.— Multiple articles and surveys in the literature suggest that medical students find a career in pathology undesirable and believe it is disproportionately focused primarily on the autopsy. Objective.— To measure the effect of applied interventions on medical student attitudes about the field of pathology. Design.— This prospective study involving medical students from first through fourth year was conducted as a pilot study in 2 medical schools in the United States. A 2-part anonymous survey regarding interest in pathology as a career and familiarity with the specialty using a 10-point scale was given to first- and second-year medical students before and after they listened to a 10-minute pathology career presentation. The same survey was given to third- and fourth-year medical students before and after a 4-week pathology elective. Results.— A total of 121 and 83 students responded to the survey before and after the intervention, respectively. Of the 121 students who responded to the survey before the intervention, 106 (87.6%) had not spent significant time in a pathology laboratory before the intervention. The majority of responses in interest in career, job responsibilities, and features of pathologists before and after the intervention demonstrated a statistically significant difference (P &lt; .001). We compared survey scores of presentation versus 4-week rotation groups before and after the intervention. Students who experienced the presentation did not differ from students who experienced the rotation in the majority of questions related to interest in career, job responsibilities, and features of pathologists. Conclusions.— Our study suggests that pathology exposure strategies can have a beneficial effect on student perceptions of the field and consideration of a career in pathology. Overall, the presentation intervention on the first- and second-year students seemed to have the greatest effect.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (7) ◽  
pp. e0255013
Carmen M. Lee ◽  
Marianne Juarez ◽  
Guenevere Rae ◽  
Lee Jones ◽  
Robert M. Rodriguez ◽  

Purpose To assess psychological effects of the initial peak phase of the COVID-19 pandemic on United States (US) medical students in clinical training to anticipate sequelae and prepare for future outbreaks. Methods Authors emailed a cross-sectional survey in April-May, 2020 to students in clinical training years at six US medical schools which included validated General Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) and Primary Care-PTSD (PC-PTSD-5) screening tools, and asked students about pandemic-related stress and specific concerns. Authors used quantitative and thematic analysis to present results. Results Of 2511 eligible students, 741 responded (29.5%). Most students (84.1%) reported at least “somewhat” increased levels of stress and anxiety related to the pandemic. On the GAD-7, 34.3% showed mild, 16.1% moderate, and 9.5% severe anxiety symptoms, with 39.6% demonstrating no/minimal symptoms. One quarter (25.4%) screened positive for PTSD risk symptoms. Top concerns of students chosen from a pre-populated list included inadequate COVID-19 testing, undiagnosed or asymptomatic spread and racial or other disparities in the pandemic. In thematic analysis, students’ reactions to removal from clinical learning included: understanding the need to conserve PPE (32.2%), a desire to help (27.7%), worry over infectious risk to others (25.4%) and self (21.2%), and lost learning opportunities (22.5%). Female students were significantly more likely to report anxiety and PTSD risk symptoms. Asian students had a greater risk of moderate anxiety and those underrepresented in medicine (UIM) had greater risk of moderate and severe anxiety symptoms compared to white students. Conclusions During the initial peak phase of COVID-19, over 60% of US medical students screened positive for pandemic-related anxiety and one quarter were at risk for PTSD. Female and UIM students were significantly more affected. Medical schools should consider broad support of students, and targeted outreach to female and UIM students.

10.2196/22920 ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (7) ◽  
pp. e22920
Janaya Elizabeth Perron ◽  
Michael Jonathon Coffey ◽  
Andrew Lovell-Simons ◽  
Luis Dominguez ◽  
Mark E King ◽  

Background Simulation-based technologies are emerging to enhance medical education in the digital era. However, there is limited data for the use of virtual reality simulation in pediatric medical education. We developed Virtual Doc as a highly immersive virtual reality simulation to teach pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills to medical students. Objective The primary objectives of this study were to evaluate participant satisfaction and perceived educational efficacy of Virtual Doc. The secondary aim of this study was to assess the game play features of Virtual Doc. Methods We conducted a prospective closed beta-testing study at the University of New South Wales (Sydney, Australia) in 2018. All medical students from the 6-year undergraduate program were eligible to participate and were recruited through voluntary convenience sampling. Participants attended a 1-hour testing session and attempted at least one full resuscitation case using the virtual reality simulator. Following this, participants were asked to complete an anonymous postsession questionnaire. Responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results A total of 26 participants were recruited, consented to participate in this study, and attended a 1-hour in-person closed beta-testing session, and 88% (23/26) of participants completed the anonymous questionnaire and were included in this study. Regarding participant satisfaction, Virtual Doc was enjoyed by 91% (21/23) of participants, with 74% (17/23) intending to recommend the simulation to a colleague and 66% (15/23) intending to recommend the simulation to a friend. In assessment of the perceived educational value of Virtual Doc, 70% (16/23) of participants agreed they had an improved understanding of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and 78% (18/23) agreed that Virtual Doc will help prepare for and deal with real-life clinical scenarios. Furthermore, 91% (21/23) of participants agreed with the development of additional Virtual Doc cases as beneficial for learning. An evaluation of the game play features as our secondary objective revealed that 70% (16/23) of participants agreed with ease in understanding how to use Virtual Doc, and 74% (17/23) found the game play elements useful in understanding cardiopulmonary resuscitation. One-third (7/23, 30%) found it easy to work with the interactive elements. In addition, 74% (17/23) were interested in interacting with other students within the simulation. Conclusions Our study demonstrates a positive response regarding trainee satisfaction and perceived educational efficacy of Virtual Doc. The simulation was widely accepted by the majority of users and may have the potential to improve educational learning objectives.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Aleksandra A. Stefaniak ◽  
Piotr K. Krajewski ◽  
Rafał Białynicki-Birula ◽  
Danuta Nowicka ◽  
Jacek C. Szepietowski

There are limited data in the literature on the frequency of face- and mask-touching behavior as a potential vector for the self-inoculation and transmission of the novel coronavirus. In this prospective study, we assessed the facial touching behavior of 204 medical students. One hundred thirty-four subjects (65.68%) during the 15-min observation at least once touched the area of the mask (38.23%), eyes (38.23%), or other parts of the facial zone (49.02%). The mean number of touches was 11.98 ± 16.33 per hour. The results of our study reveal that there is no significant association between mask wearing and gender; however, there might be a tendency for people with eyeglasses to touch the area near the eyes more often.

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Barry Lee Reynolds ◽  
Xiaofang Zhang ◽  
Chen Ding

Abstract This mixed-methods study investigated the English medical vocabulary strategies, needs, and difficulties of Taiwanese medical school students via an open- and closed-ended questionnaire (n = 17), a test measuring vocabulary size (n = 17), student interviews (n = 5), and teacher interviews (n = 3). Students reported using some vocabulary strategies more than others. A statistically significant negative relationship between students’ English vocabulary size and their use of word cards for vocabulary learning was also revealed. Through analysis of the interview data gathered from the medical students and their English teachers, five vocabulary learning difficulties faced by the medical students were uncovered: (1) nonexistent intentional English vocabulary learning, (2) stagnant specialized medical English vocabulary acquisition, (3) lack of sufficient contextualized academic English writing practice with newly encountered specialized medical vocabulary; (4) lack of teacher feedback on the students’ vocabulary use; and (5) lack of pedagogical communication among faculty. The pedagogical implications of these results were discussed with a focus on improving students’ vocabulary learning efficiency in light of their specialized English medical vocabulary needs.

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