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2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Mahasty Ganjoo ◽  
Akram Farhadi ◽  
Reza Baghbani ◽  
Safieh Daneshi ◽  
Reza Nemati

Abstract Background The COVID-19 pandemic as a global mental health crisis has affected everyone, including students. The present study aimed to determine and investigate the relationship between health locus of control and perceived stress in students of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences (southern Iran) during the outbreak of COVID-19. Methods The present cross-sectional study examined 250 students of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences. We performed simple random sampling and utilized the demographic information form, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale (MHLCS) by Wallston, and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) by Cohen to collect data. We analyzed data using the SPSS, Pearson correlation coefficient, and the hierarchical regression model with an error level of 5%. Results The mean perceived stress was 30.74 ± 8.09, and 92.4% of the students had moderate and high stress levels. Among the components of the health locus of control, the internal health locus of control (IHLC) had the highest mean in students (27.55 ± 3.81). Furthermore, the internal health locus of control (R = − 0.30, P < 0.001) had a significant inverse relationship, with perceived stress and the chance health locus of control (CHLC) (R = 0.30, P < 0.001) had a significant direct relationship. In the final regression model, the health locus of control and all the variables predicted 22.7% of the perceived stress variation in students during the COVID-19 period. Conclusion The results indicated that the internal health locus of control was associated with a reduction of perceived stress, and the powerful others health locus of control (PHLC) was related to its increase in students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Given the uncertain future, in the present work, universities are suggested to design web-based educational interventions alongside the curriculum to further strengthen the internal health locus of control and thus help reduce their perceived stress.

2021 ◽  
Juan Wang ◽  
Jiuling Liu

Abstract Background and aims LDL-C/HDL-C ratio predicted atherosclerosis progression better than LDL-C or HDL-C alone. However, the association between LDL-C/HDL-C ratio and Carotid Atherosclerosis(CA) is still controversial. There is a lack of research on this topic in theAsymptomatic Japanese Population. This study aims to provide further results. Methods The study population was a cross-sectional study of 1904 subjects free of cardio-cerebrovascular disease at baseline(mean age 57±11.9 years, 51.9% male). All participant sultrasonography of the carotid artery. The presence of carotid plaque score(PS) aand plaque number (PN) were evaluated by ultrasonography. Multivariate logistic regression models to estimatethe LDL-C/HDL-C ratio and PS relationship. Participants were stratified into three groups based on LDL-C/HDL-C ratio tertiles. Interaction and stratified analyses were conductedaccording to age, sex, smoking status, drinking status, fatty, and histories of diabetes. Results In regression models and after multiple adjustments, the risk of PS was significantly associated with serum LDL-C/HDL-C ratio levels in which LDL-C/HDL-C ratio was included as a categorical variable. It remained significant for the highest vs the first tertile of the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (OR=1.50, 95% CI 1.04–2.17). Stratified analysis,we found that the association was more significant aged <65 years old, female and non-diabetes subgroups.Interaction analysis showed no interaction between LDL-C/HDL-C ratio and PS in the fatty,smoking, and drinking subgroups. Conclusions In conclusion, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio is an independent risk factor for CA in the Japanese population. A prospective and randomized clinical trial of LDL-C/HDL-C ratio lowering therapy in the Japanese population is needed to assess the causal nature of the relationship.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Maryam Khosrozadeh ◽  
Maryam Mostafavi ◽  
Mohammad Hassan Hamrah ◽  
Elham Niknejad

Introduction. Although primary teeth have a determinative role in development of normal occlusion, few studies about anomalies related to deciduous dentition have been conducted so far. Regarding recent improvements in common knowledge and the importance of maintaining primary teeth until eruption of succedaneous teeth, identifying the morphology of primary teeth and probable variations is of great importance to achieve optimal therapeutic outcome. This study aims to determine the prevalence of three-rooted mandibular primary molars in a population of northwestern Iran. Materials and Methods. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, periapical radiographs of patients attending private oral and maxillofacial radiology offices in the northwestern region of Iran from 2017 to 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 300 cases in the 3– 10 -year age range having bilateral periapical radiographs from mandibular primary molars were screened. First and second primary molars were observed meticulously. Gender, side of the mandible (right or left), symmetry, overall prevalence, and prevalence considering the type of molar (D or E) were recorded and analyzed. Results. Overall prevalence of three-rooted mandibular primary molars was 9.33 % (   28 / 300 ), 92.9 % of which were unilateral. The prevalence of teeth showing supernumerary roots among all teeth examined was 2.5 % ( 30 / 1200 ). Considering symmetry and gender, the occurrence of these three-rooted primary molars did not differ significantly (respectively, p = 0.832 and p = 0.541 ). However, there was a significant relationship between the occurrence of supernumerary roots and left side for three-rooted first molars and right side for three-rooted second molars ( p = 0.021 ). Conclusion. Obtained data show that three-rooted mandibular primary molars in children of northwest region of Iran have a prevalence of approximately 10   % which urges some specific considerations in exodontic and endodontic procedures.

Heejun Shin ◽  
Se Kwang Oh ◽  
Han You Lee ◽  
Heajin Chung ◽  
Seong Yong Yoon ◽  

Abstract This study conducted to analyze and compare the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of hydrogen fluoride exposed patients based on major burn criteria for the appropriate emergency department (ED) response to a mass casualty chemical spill. This retrospective cross-sectional study included the records of patients (n = 199) who visited the ED of Gumi City University Hospital from September 27, 2012, to October 20, 2012. Subjects were included in the major burn group (MBG) if they presented with wounds that required referral to a burn center according to the American Burn Association guidelines or in the non-major burn group (NMBG) if not. Males were predominant in both the MBG (n = 55, 48 males) and NMBG (n = 144, 84 males; p &lt; 0.05). The most prevalent timeline for visiting the ED was the phase which included 9-32 hours post-leak of HF, including 45 patients (81.8%) in the MBG and 122 patients (84.7%) in the NMBG (p &lt; 0.001). The respiratory tract was the site of greatest damage in patients in both the MBG and NMBG (n=47, 85.5% versus n=142, 98.6%, p &lt; 0.001). Regarding dispositions, all patients in the NMBG were discharged (n=144, 100%); however, 8 patients (14.5%) in the MBG underwent other dispositions (discharge againt medical advice, 5 patients; admission, 1; death, 2, p &lt; 0.05). Patient outcomes after major chemical contamination events should be characterized in future studies to maximize the quality of patient care.

2021 ◽  
Rumpa Sarker ◽  
Md. Saiful Islam ◽  
Mst. Sabrina Moonajilin ◽  
Mahmudur Rahman ◽  
Hailay Abrha Gesesew ◽  

Early diagnosis of breast cancer is the best approach towards its control that may result in alleviating related mortality and morbidity. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge about breast cancer and both practices and perceived barriers to breast self-examination among female university students in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 400 female students of Jahangirnagar University, Bangladesh. Participants were sampled from female dormitories at the university from January to April 2020. Proportionate stratified random sampling was conducted to calculate the study sample from each dormitory. A pre-tested, semi-structured self-reported questionnaire was employed to collect data from participants during the survey periods. The questionnaire consists of demographic variables, items about knowledge about breast cancer, breast self-examination practices and its barriers. We applied descriptive and inferential statistics, and data were analyzed using SPSS. Participants aged between 18-26 years and comprised university students of 1st year (20%), 2nd year (24%), 3rd year (22%), 4th year (21%) and Masters (14.%). 18% of them had reported positive family history (mother, aunt, sister/cousin, grandmother) of breast cancer. The overall mean score of total knowledge items was 15 (SD = 3) out of 43, with an overall correct rate of 34%. The mean score of total knowledge items was significantly higher (p<0.001) among Masters students and students with family members who have breast cancer. Only one in five students (21%) ever practiced breast self-examination. The mean score of practice towards breast self-examination was significantly higher (p<0.001) among participants who reported having family member of breast cancer. It is noted that the total knowledge score about breast cancer and practice towards breast self-examination are significantly correlated with each other (r = 0.54; p<0.001). About 33% participants had reported that lack of knowledge as the main barrier to practicing breast self-examination followed by I do not have the symptoms (22%), and shyness/ uncomfortable feelings (17%). The study revealed low levels of knowledge about breast cancer and low breast self-examination practices. This implies the need of promotion and implementation of educational interventions programs that are social and culturally appropriate and suitable for specific age groups.

2021 ◽  
Ana Valesca Fernandes Gilson Silva ◽  
Diego Menezes ◽  
Filipe Romero Rebello Moreira ◽  
Octavio Alcantara Torres ◽  
Paula Luize Camargos Fonseca ◽  

The Covid-19 pandemic has created an unprecedented need for epidemiological monitoring using diverse strategies. We conducted a project combining prevalence, seroprevalence, and genomic surveillance approaches to describe the initial pandemic stages in Betim City, Brazil. We collected 3239 subjects in a population-based age-, sex- and neighborhood-stratified, household, prospective; cross-sectional study divided into three surveys 21 days apart sampling the same geographical area. In the first survey, overall prevalence (participants positive in serological or molecular tests) reached 0.46% (90% CI 0.12% - 0.80%), followed by 2.69% (90% CI 1.88% - 3.49%) in the second survey and 6.67% (90% CI 5.42% - 7.92%) in the third. The underreporting reached 11, 19.6, and 20.4 times in each survey, respectively. We observed increased odds to test positive in females compared to males (OR 1.88 95% CI 1.25 - 2.82), while the single best predictor for positivity was ageusia/ anosmia (OR 8.12, 95% CI 4.72 - 13.98). Thirty-five SARS-CoV-2 genomes were sequenced, of which 18 were classified as lineage B.1.1.28, while 17 were B.1.1.33. Multiple independent viral introductions were observed. Integration of multiple epidemiological strategies was able to describe Covid-19 dispersion in the city adequately. Presented results have helped local government authorities to guide pandemic management.

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