Introduction: Acute Pancreatitis is a common disease in our region. It can range from mild to severe disease with high mortality rate. It is critical to identify patients who are at high risk for a severe disease course, since they require close monitoring and immediate aggressive treatment.
Aims: To compare the effectiveness of Harmless Acute Pancreatitis Score with Ranson’s scoring system in predicting the severity of Acute Pancreatitis.
Methods: A prospective cross sectional study was done among 45 patients who were admitted in surgery department over a period of one year with diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. If haematocrit was less than39% in female and less than43% in male, serum creatinine less than two miligram /deciliter and no sign of peritonitis, it was assigned as Harmless Acute Pancreatitis Score Zero. If at least one parameter was abnormal it was assigned as Harmless Acute Pancreatitis Score +. Severe pancreatitis (poor prognosis) was considered in those who required Intensive Care Unit care, who had in hospital mortality and who had hospitalization of more than five days. Patients with on admission Ranson’s score of more than three were suspected to have severe Pancreatitis.
Results: There were total 45 patients, 18 females and 27 males. Twenty four patients were assigned as Harmless Acute Pancreatitis Score zero and 21 patients were assigned as Harmless Acute Pancreatitis Score +. Harmless Acute Pancreatitis Score was able to predict correctly in 18 out of 26 patients who fulfilled the criteria of poor prognosis (p<0.001).
Conclusion: Harmless Acute Pancreatitis Score proved to be a better screening tool compared to on admission Ranson’s scoring system to predict the severity of Acute Pancreatitis, which may help predict the prognosis of the patient.
Introduction: Molar pregnancies represent a significant burden of disease on the spectrum of gestational trophoblastic diseases. Vaginal bleeding being the most common occasionally, molar pregnancy is complicated by hyperthyroidism, which may require treatment.
Aims: To determine thyroid function test and association of hyperthyroidism among the cases of molar pregnancy.
Methods: This is a hospital-based cross-sectional study conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nepalgunj Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Kohalpur. Sixty cases of molar pregnancy were included during the study period from February 2020 to January 2021.Patients having history of known thyroid disorders were excluded.
Results: Prevalence of molar pregnancy in our study was 5.4 per thousand pregnancies in our hospital. Molar pregnancy and hyperthyroidism, both were common in the age group of 21-35 years. Hyperthyroidism was present in 10% patients. Enlarged thyroid was seen in 3.3%, tremor was present in 3.3%, and palpitation in 21.5%. Five (8.3%) patients with hyperthyroidism were underweight. Majority of patients with hyperthyroidism, beta humanchorionic gonadotrophhin level was more than three lakhs and it was mostly associated with complete hydatidiform mole compared to partial hydatidiform mole. Thyroid storm was not experienced in any of the patients.
Conclusion: The rate of molar pregnancy is high. Hyperthyroidism in molar pregnancy is not uncommon. High levels of human chorionic gonadotropin, complete hydatiform mole are directly associated with hyperthyroidism. Awareness of this condition is important for diagnosis and treatment to prevent life threatening complications.
Introduction: Mini Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (mPCNL) is a safe and efficient method for management of nephrolithiasis. Post procedure nephrostomy tube drainage is considered as the standard practice. In recent years, tubeless mPCNL with the use of double J (DJ) stent alone has replaced the placement of the nephrostomy tube.
Aims: This study intends to evaluate the safety and efficacy of tubeless Mini Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy.
Methods: A total of 80 patients with Nephrolithiasis, admitted to Urology Unit of Nepalgunj Medical College, between September 2018 and September 2019 were enrolled in the study and divided into two groups: Tubeless group where tube was omitted and Standard Group where it was placed. The two groups were compared with respect to hemoglobin drop and blood transfusion requirement, hospital stay and analgesic requirement in the post-operative period.
Results: Mean age of the patients was 34.30 ± 13.19 years. Mean stone size was 19.03 mm. The mean change in hemoglobin after standard mPCNL was 1.68 gm/dl and that in the tubeless group was 1.11 (p=0.018). The tubeless group had a significantly (p=0.001) shorter hospital stay (3.05 ± 1.23 days) compared to standard group (3.85 ± 0.86). The postoperative pain as assessed by visual analogue scale, was more in the standard group necessitating additional analgesia. It was significantly higher in the standard group at 12, 24, 48 hours, as compared to the tubeless group.
Conclusion: Placement of nephrostomy tube can be omitted as a routine practice as Tubeless mini PCNL has an added advantage of significantly reduced postoperative pain, less analgesic requirement, shorter hospital stay, less postoperative blood loss.
Introduction: Foetal death at any stage of pregnancy is not just a tragic event but also a more traumatic for the mental well-being of a mother. It is one of the most wrenching events in the field of obstetrics.
Aims: The study was done to determine the probable risk factors of intrauterine foetal death and role of antenatal care in its prevention.
Methods: The study was conducted in Obstetrics and Gynecology department at Nepalgunj Medical college from July 2018 to July 2020 .Inclusion criteria were intrauterine fetal death of >28 weeks of gestation and baby weighing 1000 grams or more . An exclusion criterion was molar pregnancy.
Results: There were 115(3.52%) intrauterine fetal death during the study period, making it 35 per 1000 cases. In 17(14.78%) the cause of intrauterine fetal death was not known. The other common associated risk factors were prematurity in 14(12.17%) and hypertension in 13(11.30%). Similarly anemia and antepartum hemorrhage were seen in 13(11.30%) each. 11(9.56%) patients had oligohydramnios. Mal presentation was found in 8(6.95%) patients while polyhydromnios in 6(5.21%).The commonest age range in whom intrauterine fetal death was seen was 20-30 (73.90%). 28 (24.34%) patients were at preterm pregnancy ranging between 28-30 weeks whereas 17(14.78) intrauterine fetal death occured at 32-34 weeks. 77 foetuses were preterm and their birth weight was between 1 - 1.5 kg with the mean wt of 1175.73 gms.
Conclusion: Intrauterine fetal death is still common inspite of the improving awareness in importance of regular antenatal care. In majority, the cause of intrauterine fetal death is still unknown. However, where the cause was known prematurity was the commonest.
Introduction: Pityriasis versicolor is superficial fungal infection. Topical drugs are often effective in treatment of limited disease while systemic drugs are more suitable in extensive cases. The systemic triazole drugs, itraconazole and fluconazole have shown promising results at different doses.
Aims: To assess the efficacy and safety of oral fluconazole combined with ketoconazole shampoo and oral itraconazole in the treatment of Pityriasis versicolor.
Methods: The study was conducted at department of Dermatology at Nepalgunj Medical College from March 2019 to February 2020. Total 100 patients of both genders with Pityriasis versicolor were randomly allocated into two groups with 50 patients in each group. Patients in Group I received oral fluconazole 300mg a week for two consecutive weeks along with ketoconazole 2% shampoo twice weekly for two weeks while those in Group II received itraconazole 200mg daily for one week. Efficacy was assessed in terms of negative fungal hyphae. The drug is considered safe if no patients were withdrawn for clinical adverse effects or laboratory abnormalities.
Results: In this study age ranged from 18 to 50 years with mean age of 31.1 years in Group I and 31.92 years in Group II. Efficacy was seen in 78% of Group I patients as compared to 54% in Group II patients at two weeks and 94% in Group I and 90% in Group II at four weeks. No significant adverse effects were reported in any of the group.
Conclusion: Fluconazole along with ketoconazole shampoo is more effective than itraconazole in treatment of pityriasis versicolor with minimal side effects, at lesser cost.
Introduction: Oral submucous fibrosis is a chronic oral disease characterized by progressive buildup of constricting collagen bands in the cheeks and adjacent structures of the mouth due to chewing of areca nut. This can severely restrict mouth opening and tongue movement causing pain and burning sensation in the mouth.
Aims: This study evaluates the efficacy of pentoxifylline in the management of oral submucous fibrosis.
Methods: A hospital-based study, conducted in the dental outpatient department of Nepalgunj Medical College from October 2019 to September 2020. Forty-nine patients who were diagnosed histopathologically with oral submucous fibrosis were included. The patients were divided into two groups. In group A, patients were given, 200 mg thrice daily for first 30 days, then dose hiked to 400 mg thrice daily for two more months. Group B patients received treatment with multi-vitamin capsules (B-complex one capsule before sleep daily) for three months. All patients were followed up for six months and were assessed for maximum inter-incisor opening, pain on opening of mouth and burning sensation.
Results: There was no statistical difference in mouth opening at baseline and first follow up. The mouth opening was significantly more in group A compared to group B from second follow up which persisted till third follow up (p <0.05). Pain and burning sensation significantly reduced in group A compared to group B from 2nd follow up which persisted till 3rd follow up (p <0.05). Few patients had nausea, dyspepsia and vomiting during treatment in group A which resolved within a few days without the need for cessation of the drug.
Conclusion: Pentoxifylline can bring about significant clinical improvements in the symptoms of oral submucous fibrosis like mouth opening, pain and burning sensation, thereby improving the quality of life of the affected individuals.
Introduction: Tonsillectomy is frequently performed surgical procedure. There are several different methods with varied advantages and disadvantages. In spite of the different techniques available there is no consensus and definite evidence for best method. The most commonly performed are conventional dissection and bipolar electrocauterization methods.
Aims: The aim of the study was to compare time required for the completion of surgery, intraoperative and postoperative blood loss along with post operative pain between conventional dissection and bipolar electrocauterization methods.
Methods: This comparative study was conducted from August 2019 to March 2021 in total of 30 patients planned for tonsillectomy in department of Otorhinolaryngology, Nepalgunj Medical College Teaching Hospital.In every patient right side tonsillectomy was done with conventional dissection method and left side tonsillectomy was done with bipolar electrocauterization method.
Results: The mean age was 27.2±13.08 years. The mean duration of surgery was 16.53 ± 2.43 min and 11.10 ± 1.93 min in conventional dissection method and bipolar electrocauterization method respectively. The difference was statistically significant. Intraoperative blood loss was significantly lower in bipolar electrocauterization method with mean intraoperative blood loss of 19 ±4.62 ml in bipolar electrocauterization group and 81.83 ±36.54 ml in conventional dissection method. The pain intensity was statistically similar in both methods at all-time intervals post operatively.
Conclusion: In tonsillectomy, bipolar electrocauterization method has advantage over conventional dissection method in regards to reduced surgical time and intra operative blood loss, without any significant difference in post-operative pain intensity and post-operative hemorrhage.
Introduction: Situs inversus is a rare autosomal recessive disorder occurring in 1:5,000 to 1:20,000 indiviuals. Cholecystectomy is a standard treatment for symptomatic gallbladder stone. We report a case of cholelithiasis in patient with inversus totalis who underwent cholecystectomy.
Case presentation: A 48 years old obese female patient with dextrocardia and hypertention presented with a recurrent left upper abdominal pain for two years. Ultrasound abdomen showed gallbladder stone. Conventional cholecystectomy was done with a small left subcostal incision. The postoperative period was uneventful and the patient was discharged on 3rd post operative day.
Conclusion: Cholecystectomy is the treatment of choice in patients with a left sided gallbladder stone, like in normal gallbladder and it is safe.
Introduction: Small for gestational age (SGA) refers to birth weight of neonates less than 10th percentile for gestational age or 2nd standard deviation below the population norms on the growth charts.
Aims: To identify common risk factors and common morbidities for small for gestational age babies.
Methods: This is a cross sectional descriptive study and it has been conducted at Department of pediatrics, Nepalgunj Medical college which is a tertiary level teaching hospital located in western part of Nepal. All term small for gestational age neonates born during study period from January 2020 to December 2020 were included. Detailed baseline demographic and clinical profile has been collected and recorded in the predesigned Proforma.
Results: The most common risk factors associated with small for gestational age babies in our study were maternal hypertension (14.6%) , maternal GDM(9.6%), Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) in 1st or 2nd trimester of pregnancy, maternal anemia, smoking, alcohol consumption, hypothyroidism and congenital heart disease. The most common short term complications associated with Small for gestational age babies were hypoglycemia and Meconium aspiration syndrome.
Conclusion: The most common risk factors associated with Small for gestational age babies in our study were maternal hypertension, maternal Gestational diabetes Mellitus (GDM), Urinary Tract Infection in 1st or 2nd trimester of pregnancy, maternal anemia, smoking, alcohol consumption, hypothyroidism and congenital heart disease. The most common short term complications associated with Small for gestational age babies were hypoglycemia and Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS).
Introduction: Urinary bladder stone occupies only 5% of all urinary tract stone. Various techniques have been used for the management of bladder stone. Open Cystolithotomy is the traditional treatment but a percutaneous approach has been also in practice.
Aims: To confirm the best options between open cystolithotomy and percutaneous cystolithotripsy for the treatment of bladder stone.
Methods: It is a prospective hospital based study from May 2019 to January 2021 in Nepalgunj Medical College. Total 42 patients with inclusion criteria were divided into two groups. Group I was allocated to 21 patients who were treated with open cystolithotomy while Group II were allocated to 21 patients who were treated with percutaneous cystolithotripsy. Two groups were compared for stone free rate, mean hospital stay, mean postoperative scar, mean operation time and rate of post-operative complications.
Results: The stone free rate in Group I was 100 % and in Group II was 90.47 %. Mean Operation time was in Group I and Group II were 40.09+ 2.48 minutes and 31.38+15.65 days, respectively with p<0.05. Mean hospital stay was significantly low in Group II (3.71+1.87 days ) when compared to Group I (7.67+ 2.12 days) with p<0.001. Mean scar length of Group I (5.466+2.9 cm) with respect to Group II (1.04+0.09) was significantly long (p<0.01). Rate of complications were not significantly different between two groups (p>0.5).
Conclusion: For management of urinary bladder stones sized up to 4 cm, both open cystolithotomy and percutaneous cystolithotripsy are effective, with a low incidence of complications. However, comparing the surgery time, hospital stay, length of scar between two procedures, percutaneous cystolithotripsy procedure is more beneficial for treatment of urinary bladder stone.