ground fault
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Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 471
Yu He ◽  
Xinhui Zhang ◽  
Wenhao Wu ◽  
Jun Zhang ◽  
Wenyuan Bai ◽  

A flexible grounding system is a system in which the neutral point of the power supply is grounded via the arc suppression coil in parallel with a low-resistance resistor. When operating normally or a temporary ground fault occurs, the arc suppression coil is used for grounding, whereas the small resistance is switched on when a permanent ground fault occurs. At present, the problem of low protection sensitivity when a high-resistance ground fault occurs in a flexible grounding system has not been solved yet. According to the characteristics of low waveform similarity between the faulty line and the non-faulty line when a single-phase grounding fault occurred, a new faulty line selection method based on a combination of Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) distance and the transient projection method is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the fault transient signal is extracted by a digital filter as a basis for faulty line selection. Secondly, the transient zero-sequence current of each line is projected onto the busbar transient zero-sequence voltage, and the projected DTW distance of each line is calculated. Finally, according to the calculation formula of waveform comprehensive similarity coefficient, the Comprehensive DTW (CDTW) distance is obtained, and the top three CDTW distance values are selected to determine the faulty line. If the maximum value is greater than the sum of the other two CDTW distance values, the line corresponding to the maximum value is judged as the faulty line; otherwise, it is judged as a busbar fault. The simulation results based on MATLAB/Simulink and field data test show that the method can accurately determine the faulty line under diverse fault conditions.

Ricardo Granizo ◽  
Jose Manuel Guerrero ◽  
Fernando Alvarez ◽  
Carlos Antonio Platero

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 31-40
Róbert Lipták ◽  
István Bodnár

In solar systems, faults in the module and inverter occur in proportion to increased operating time. The identification of fault types and their effects is important information not only for manufacturers but also for investors, solar operators and researchers. Monitoring and diagnosing the condition of photovoltaic (PV) systems is becoming essential to maximize electric power generation, increase the reliability and lifetime of PV power plants. Any faults in the PV modules cause negative economic and safety impacts, reducing the performance of the system and making unwanted electric connections that can be dangerous for the user. In this paper have been classified all possible faults that happen in the PV system, and is presented to detect common PV array faults, such as open-circuit fault, line-to-line fault, ground fault, shading condition, degradation fault and bypass diode fault. In this studies examines the equivalent circuits of PV arrays with different topological configurations and fault conditions to evaluate the effects of these faults on the performance of a solar system, taking into account the influence of temperature and solar radiation. This work presents the validation of a simulated solar network by measuring the output curves of a low-power photovoltaic array system under real outdoor conditions. This method can be useful in future solar systems.

И.Е. Кажекин ◽  
С.П. Финько ◽  
М.С. Харитонов

Описаны результаты исследований влияния показателей качества электроэнергии на токи однофазных замыканий в судовых электроустановках. Выявлены основные элементы бортовых электроустановок, влияющие на качество электроэнергии. Проанализировано формирование высших гармоник в токе однофазного замыкания. На физической модели электроустановки проведены исследования влияния нелинейной нагрузки на ток однофазного замыкания. Результаты экспериментов подтвердили установленные закономерности. Выявлено, что в установившемся режиме ток однофазного замыкания определяется не только величиной фазной емкости и напряжением сети, но и несинусоидальностью тока нагрузки. Экспериментально показано, что высшие гармоники, присутствующие в токе нагрузки, усиливаются в токе однофазного замыкания. При этом увеличение их амплитуд пропорционально номеру гармоники и ее амплитуде в токе нагрузки. Экспериментально установлено, что формирование высших гармоник в токе однофазного замыкания в результате эмиссии нелинейной нагрузкой приводит к увеличению его действующего значения. The paper represents the research results of the power quality indicators influence on the currents of single-phase ground faults in ship electrical installations. The main elements of on-board electrical installations that affect the quality of electricity are identified. The process of higher harmonics formation in the single-phase ground fault current is analyzed. Studies of the nonlinear load influence on the single-phase fault current are carried out on the physical model of the electrical installation. The experimental results confirmed the established patterns. For the steady-state mode it was discovered that the single-phase ground fault current is determined not only by the phase capacitance value and the mains voltage, but also by the non-sinusoidality of the load current. It has been shown experimentally that the higher harmonics of the load current are amplified in the single-phase ground fault current. In this case, the increase at their amplitudes is proportional to the harmonic number and its amplitude in the load current. It has been experimentally established that the formation of higher harmonics at a single-phase ground fault current as a result of emission by a nonlinear load leads to an increase in its effective value.

2021 ◽  
pp. 303-314
Jia-Min Li ◽  
Shi-Jian Liu ◽  
Xiang Shao ◽  
Jeng-Shyang Pan

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