To truly reflect the durability characteristics of concrete subjected to multiple factors under complex environmental conditions, it is necessary to discuss the prediction of its durability. In response to the problem of durability prediction of traditional concrete structures, there is a low prediction accuracy, and the predicted time is long, and a concrete structural durability prediction method based on the deep belief network is proposed. The influencing factors of the concrete structural durability parameters are analyzed by two major categories of concrete material and external environmental conditions, and the transmission of chloride ions in the concrete structure is described. According to the disconnection of the steel bars, the durability of the concrete structure is started, and the determination is determined. The concrete structural antiflexural strength, using a deep belief network training concrete structural antiflexural strength judgment data, constructs a concrete structural durability predictive model and completes the durability prediction of the concrete structure based on the deep belief network. The proposed prediction method based on the deep belief network has a high prediction accuracy of 98% for the durability of concrete column structures. The simulation results show that the concrete structural durability’s prediction accuracy is high and the prediction time is short. The prediction of concrete durability discussed here has important guiding significance for the improvement of concrete durability test methods and the improvement of concrete durability evaluation standards in China.