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2022 ◽  
Vol 51 ◽  
pp. 101920
Awsan Mohammed ◽  
Ahmed Ghaithan ◽  
Ahmad Al-Hanbali ◽  
Ahmed M. Attia ◽  
Haitham Saleh ◽  

Ahmed Abdulmula ◽  
Kamaruzzaman Sopian ◽  
Norasikin Ahmad Ludin ◽  
Lim Chin Haw ◽  
Abdelnaser Elbreki ◽  

This study investigates the technical and cost-effective performance of options renewable energy sources to develop a green off-grid telecommunication tower to replace diesel generators in Malaysia. For this purpose, the solar, wind, pico-hydro energy, along with diesel generators, were examined to compare. In addition, the modeling of hybrid powering systems was conducted using hybrid optimization model for energy (HOMER) simulation based on techno-economic analysis to determine the optimal economically feasible system. The optimization findings showed that the hybrid high-efficiency fixed photovoltaic (PV) system with battery followed by 2 kW pico-hydropower and battery are the optimal configurations for powering off-grid telecommunication towers in Malaysia with the lowest net present cost (NPC) and cost of energy (COE). These costs of NPC and COE are more down than diesel generator costs with battery by 17.45%, 16.45%, 15.9%, and 15.5%, respectively. Furthermore, the economic evaluation of the high-efficiency solar fixed PV panels system annual cash flow compared to the diesel generator with the battery system indicated a ten-year payback period.

Amina Mahmoud Shakir ◽  
Siba Monther Yousif ◽  
Anas Lateef Mahmood

Bifacial photovoltaic (PV) module can gain 30% more energy compared to monofacial if a suitable location were chosen. Iraq (a Middle East country) has a variable irradiation level according to its geographic coordinates, thus, the performance of PV systems differs. This paper an array (17 series, 13 parallel) was chosen to produce 100 kWp for an on-grid PV system. It investigates the PV system in three cities in Iraq (Mosul, Baghdad, and Basrah). Effect of albedo factor, high and pitch of the bifacial module on energy yield have been studied using PVsyst (software). It has been found that the effect is less for a pitch greater than 6 m. The energy gained from bifacial and monofacial PV system module in these cities shows that Mosul is the most suitable for installing both PV systems followed by Baghdad and lastly Basrah. However, in Basrah, the bifacial gain is 12% higher in the energy than monofacial as irradiation there is higher than the other locations, especially for elevation above 1.5 m. Moreover, the cost of bifacial array is 7.23% higher than monofacial, but this additional cost is acceptable since the bifacial gain is about 11.3% higher energy compared to the monofacial.

Yuvraj Praveen Soni ◽  
Eugene Fernandez

Solar PV systems can be used for powering small microgrids in rural area of developing countries. Generally, a solar power microgrid consists of a PV array, an MPPT, a dc-dc converter and an inverter, particularly as the general loads are A.C in nature. In a PV system, reactive current, unbalancing in currents, and harmonics are generated due to the power electronics-based converters as well as nonlinear loads (computers induction motors etc). Thus, estimation of the harmonics levels measured by the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) is an essential aspect of performance assessment of a solar powered microgrid. A major issue that needs to be examined is the impact of PV system control parameters on the THD. In this paper, we take up this assessment for a small PV based rural microgrid with varying levels of solar irradiance. A Simulink model has been developed for the study from which the THD at equilibrium conditions is estimated. This data is in turn used to design a generalized Linear Regression Model, which can be used to observe the sensitivity of three control variables on the magnitude of the THD. These variables are: Solar Irradiance levels, Power Factor (PF) of connected load magnitude of the connected load (in kVA) The results obtained show that the greatest sensitivity is obtained for load kVA variation.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 611
Cecilia Ciacci ◽  
Neri Banti ◽  
Vincenzo Di Naso ◽  
Frida Bazzocchi

In Italy in 2020, only 15.5% of school building heritage was retrofitted from an energy and environmental point of view. In this paper, the cost-optimal method was applied to two different school buildings belonging to the same Italian cold climate zone but characterized by different structural and technological solutions. The research aims at defining the cost-effective redevelopment solution among several ones proposed to apply to this building type. At the same time, this paper provides a critical analysis of the methodology applied, highlighting deficiencies related to a not proper evaluation of environmentally friendly retrofitting measures. In a cost-effective context, the main results show that the intervention on the heating system is more convenient than the retrofitting of the envelope. The energy saving is equal to about 35% for both considered schools. Among the different proposed requalification configurations, the adoption of PV (photovoltaic) electric generation is included. In this regard, an optimization procedure was implemented in a generative design environment to maximize energy production with reference to different design parameters. As a result, a solution with south oriented PV modules with a tilt angle of 42° and arranged in 0.7 m spaced rows proved to be the most effective.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Muhammad Akhtar Abbas Khan ◽  
Saima Hamid ◽  
Tofeeq Ur-Rehman ◽  
Zaheer-Ud-Din Babar

Objectives: Pakistan felt the need for an effective and robust pharmacovigilance (PV) system after one of the deadliest drug-related tragedies causing more than 300 deaths in 2012. The country set up its national PV center in 2015 and joined WHO’s Program for International Drug Monitoring (PIDM) in 2018 as a full member. The current study was aimed to evaluate the PV system’s functionality, identify the gaps, areas of improvement, and a strategy to lead a functional PV system in Pakistan.Methods: The descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted by providing an interviewer-administered questionnaire of the PV system across Pakistan by utilizing the Indicator based Pharmacovigilance assessment tool (IPAT). By a convenience sampling method 36 study participants were selected from the Drug Regulatory Authority of Pakistan (DRAP), drug administration of provincial health departments of 4 provinces and federally affiliated areas, 5 national public health programs, and 23 public and private hospitals. The assessment includes document review, interviews of the key informants by structured open-ended questions, and a review of websites of relevant organizations.Results: Drug Regulatory Authority of Pakistan (DRAP) with a national PV center received a 75% overall performance score on IPAT. To be regarded as “minimally functioning,” a country’s PV and drug safety system must meet all core indicators. DRAP scored 80.76% on the core indicators so cannot be deemed functional at this time. The only province with a regional PV center, Punjab, had scored 72.13% on relevant parameters. Despite receiving funding from the Global Fund, none of the National Public Health Programs (PHPs) have PV centers or associated activities. All hospitals except two private hospitals could not qualify the minimum requirements for functional PV. The absence of a legal framework for mandatory ADR reporting, lack of drug information center, budgetary constraints, no active surveillance activities, the nonexistence of pharmacovigilance risk assessment expert committee, and insufficient coordination among stakeholders were identified as major gaps.Conclusion: The results of the study reveal that Pakistan’s PV system is not fully functional at all levels. A two-phased strategy encompassing the non-financial and financial interventions is proposed to improve the PV systems at the national, provincial, PHPs, and hospitals levels.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 745
Hrvoje Glavaš ◽  
Matej Žnidarec ◽  
Damir Šljivac ◽  
Nikola Veić

Infrared thermography, in the analysis of photovoltaic (PV) power plants, is a mature technical discipline. In the event of a hailstorm that leaves the PV system without the support of the power grid (and a significant portion of the generation potential), thermography is the easiest way to determine the condition of the modules and revive the existing system with the available resources. This paper presents research conducted on a 30 kW part of a 420 kW PV power plant, and demonstrates the procedure for inspecting visually correct modules that have suffered from a major natural disaster. The severity of the disaster is shown by the fact that only 14% of the PV modules at the test site remained intact. Following the recommendations of the standard IEC TS 62446-3, a thermographic analysis was performed. The thermographic analysis was preceded by an analysis of the I-V curve, which was presented in detail using two characteristic modules as examples. I-V curve measurements are necessary to relate the measured values of the radiation and the measured contact temperature of the module to the thermal patterns. The analysis concluded that soiled modules must be cleaned, regardless of the degree of soiling. The test results clearly indicated defective module elements that would result in a safety violation if reused. The research shows that the validity criterion defined on the basis of the analysis of the reference module can be supplemented, but can also be replaced by a statistical analysis of several modules. The comparison between the thermographic analysis and the visual inspection clearly confirmed thermography as a complementary method for testing PV-s.

2022 ◽  
Anbarasi MP ◽  
Kanthalakshmi S

Abstract A control strategy for power maximization which is an important mechanism to extract maximum power under changing environmental conditions using Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization (APSO) is proposed in this paper. An Adaptive Inertia Weighting Factor (AIWF) is utilised in the velocity update equation of traditional PSO for the improvement in speed of convergence and precision in tracking Maximum Power Point (MPP) in standalone Photovoltaic system. Adaptation of weights based on the success rate of particles towards maximum power extraction is the most promising feature of AIWF. The inertia weight is kept constant in traditional PSO for the complete duration of optimization process. The MPPT in PV system poses a dynamic optimization problem and the proposed APSO approach paves way not only to track MPP under uniform irradiation conditions, but also to track MPP under non uniform irradiation conditions. Simulations are done in MATLAB/Simulink environment to verify the effectiveness of proposed technique in comparison with the existing PSO technique. With change in irradiation and temperature, the APSO technique is found to provide better results in terms of tracking speed and efficiency. Hardware utilizing dSPACE DS1104 controller board is developed in the laboratory to verify the effectiveness of APSO method in real time.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 673
Anatolijs Borodinecs ◽  
Deniss Zajecs ◽  
Kristina Lebedeva ◽  
Raimonds Bogdanovics

Temporary structures are being extensively used by emergency services (rescue, disaster relief, military response units), and other end-users requiring temporary mobile off-grid energy solutions for different purposes (event organization, vacation homes, summer camps, etc.). Yet energy systems for these purposes largely remain fossil-based (such as diesel generators). Although such energy systems are inexpensive, they are carbon intensive and inefficient. This study presents a methodology of simulating temporary shelter with access to an energy supply system through a mobile energy unit with renewable (PV) power supply systems to ensure on-site electricity production, as well as heating/cooling and ventilation. Digital modeling simulations have been performed for a simulated temporary shelter in different climate conditions incorporating different combinations of electricity generation systems with a fossil fuel-based solution and a PV system, using TRNSYS software. Study results show that the operation of a mobile energy generation unit can operate HVAC systems and generate electricity for temporary shelter occupants in off-grid solutions. The modeling results show that the use of a mobile energy generation unit can significantly reduce diesel consumption in temporary shelters from 54% annually (in Riga, Latvia) to 96 % annually (in Jerusalem, Israel). Furthermore, the output of PV-generated electricity is higher (in most cases) than the consumed electricity amount.

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