Mass Transfer
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2022 ◽  
Vol 121 ◽  
pp. 104331
Shuangyang Li ◽  
Gen Li ◽  
Chong Wang ◽  
Yuanming Lai ◽  
Jiale Yang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 880
Tondepu Subbaiah ◽  
Ponnam Vijetha ◽  
Barsha Marandi ◽  
Kali Sanjay ◽  
Manickam Minakshi

Current density plays a major role in deciding the plant size, current efficiency, and energy consumption in electrorefining cells. In general, operating current density will be 40% of the limiting current density. Forced circulation of the electrolyte in the presence of promoters improves the mass transfer coefficient. In the present study, rectangular turbulence promoters are fitted at the bottom side of the cell to improve the mass transfer coefficient at the cathode support plate. The limiting current density technique is used to measure the mass transfer coefficient. The variables covered in the present study are the effects of flow rate, promoter height, and spacing among the promoters. The electrolyte consists of copper sulfate and sulphuric acid. At a regulated flow rate, the electrolyte is pumped from the recirculation tank to the cell through an intermediate overhead tank. The limiting current density increased with an increasing flow rate in the presence of promoters, and thus the overall mass transfer coefficient on the cathode support plate also improved. With an increase in the flow rate of the electrolyte from 6.67 × 10−6 to 153.33 m3/s, limiting current density increased from 356.8 to 488.8 A/m2 for spacing of 0.30 m, with a promoter height of 0.01 m. However, it is noteworthy that when the promoter height is increased from 0.01 to 0.07 m, the overall mass transfer coefficient is found to increase up to 60%, but with the further increase in the promoter height to 0.30 m the mass transfer coefficient starts to decrease. Therefore, the optimized cell parameters are established in this work. The current sustainable concept of employing rectangular turbulence promoters will bring benefits to any precious metal refining or electrowinning tank house electrolytes.

Peter B. Kelemen ◽  
Juan Carlos de Obeso ◽  
James A. Leong ◽  
Marguerite Godard ◽  
Keishi Okazaki ◽  

Samira Moradi ◽  
Keivan Shayesteh ◽  
Qasem Mohammad

Background: This study aimed to investigate the effect of the hydrodynamic condition on the release rate of urea/acetylated lignin sulfonate (Ac-LS) matrix as slow-release fertilizers (SRFs). Therefore, two models were developed using the mass transfer balance for the finite/infinite volume of fluids, solving finite integral transform/separation of a variable. In these models, the Biot number that verified the hydrodynamic condition appeared. Methods: In the experimental section, the urea/Ac-LS matrix fertilizer was produced. The morphological, thermal, chemical, and mechanical properties of the LS, Ac-LS, urea, and urea/Ac-LS matrix were analyzed using Fe-SEM, TGA, XRD, and SANTAM. Finally, the nitrogen release of the matrix fertilizer was investigated at 25°C for different impeller speeds. Results: The results showed that the thermal and mechanical resistance of urea/Ac-LS, with strong interaction, increased rather than pure urea or Ac-LS. The models were also validated using experimental data. The results further showed that in both states, the external resistance of the mass transfer decreased with increasing impeller speed, and the nitrogen release rate increased with increasing Biot number. Conclusion: It was also observed that, in a given hydrodynamic condition, initially, the release rate in the finite environment was less than the infinite; however, after a while, the type of environment did not affect the release rate

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