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In 2021, the French publishing house L'Harmattan published a monograph entitled Darfur peacekeepers the African Union peacekeeping mission in Darfur (AMIS) from the perspective of a Hungarian military advisor. The author of the 234-page monograph is Janos Besenyo. In addition to the author's preface and the conclusion, the monograph includes six substantive chapters. In the first chapter entitled Geography and history of Darfur, the author presents the geography, climate, flora and fauna, major cities, economy, infrastructure, different nationalities, ethnic groups and religions, and the history of Darfur. In the second chapter, entitled AMIS, he focuses on the African Union's mission in Sudan I (AMIS I), in which he presents the causes of the Darfur conflict, its outbreak and the African Union’s engagement in the conflict with the African Union's mission in Sudan. This is followed by a chapter entitled AMIS II, which presents the history, structure and operation following the decision to engage additional civilian and military observers, soldiers, police officers and additional financial and other resources. The fourth chapter presents a new mission called AMIS II E or AMIS III, which is also the title of the chapter. The letter E in the acronym stands for the word “enhanced,” which implicated the enhanced character of military presence in this mission. This chapter is composed of a subchapter entitled The Foreshadow of the Fall and the additional engagement of the United Nations, followed by the UN and African Union mission in Darfur, known as UNAMID. In the fifth chapter, entitled The Support Mission of the European Union, and its four substantive subchapters, the author presents several phases of the European Union's participation in the mission led by the African Union. Chapter six, entitled Hungarian Experience, describes Hungarian experiences from the missions in Darfur. Hungary first deployed its military observer to Darfur in 2004. Hungary's involvement in the mission in Africa seems unusual, as it was the only one of all the participating countries that had no colonial history, economic or any other interests in this part of the world, and at the same time had no previous experiences. The monograph has only one drawback, and that is the fact that it is not scientific. However, this is at the same time its advantage. Besenyo was an officer in the Hungarian Armed Forces for 31 years and was deployed in Darfur in the second half of 2005. He was strongly marked by his personal experience as a peacekeeper. Ever since, he has been devoting much attention to Africa-related security topics. His return from the mission of the African Union, the European Union, NATO, the United Nations and other organisations in Darfur coincided with his doctoral studies. Both of these activities have achieved the same effect as two rivers, which merge at the confluence and gain a lot of power and speed as their flow continues. After completing his military career, the author of the monograph being a prolific writer and restless researcher became actively involved in the academic environment as a university professor at the Obuda University in Budapest. In 2019, the Africa Research Institute was established within Doctoral School of Safety and Security Sciences, University of Óbuda, headed by Assistant Professor Besenyo, PhD. Considering the amount and quality of publications on the African continent, the institute is clearly very successful. From a European point of view, Africa is a very distant continent; however, the developments in that region and their results are increasingly affecting all of us in the European Union and beyond. The migration flow, which brought many African migrants to the shores of the Mediterranean over the last decade and peaked in 2015, has significantly changed and affected all the countries along their way, especially those that migrants had chosen as their target countries. Since everyone should have the right to live at home in peace, in their own way, with their family, it would be right that they are enabled to do so. Unfortunately, climate change, water scarcity, disease, poverty, differences in culture, religion, political order and natural resources, but sometimes only individuals or smaller associations, lead to various frictions, conflicts or even genocide, as was the case in Darfur. In such cases, the international humanitarian community and various security and other organizations are usually involved to assist the helpless population. In his monograph, Besenyo presented the full breadth and magnitude of international humanitarian efforts, but also the harsh reality where all those who want to help are exactly where they need to be, but despite all their efforts, they are completely powerless. I recommend Darfur Peacekeepers to be read by all those who care about the future of all of us and our descendants, but especially by those who have the opportunity and ability to influence the security of the country, the society and the individual. The content of the book provides an invaluable insight into the experience of a military officer. It is a valuable learning resource for all of us, but especially for members of the armed forces, police and civilian institutions that lead or support the activities within international missions.

The Holocene ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 095968362110604
Carolina Senn ◽  
Willy Tinner ◽  
Vivian A Felde ◽  
Erika Gobet ◽  
Jacqueline FN van Leeuwen ◽  

Past vegetation and biodiversity dynamics, reconstructed using palaeoecological methods, can contribute to assessing the magnitude of the current biodiversity crisis and anticipating future risks and challenges. Among the different palaeoecological techniques, pollen analysis is probably the most widely used to reconstruct vegetation and plant diversity changes through time. Such reconstructions demand robust and comprehensive calibration studies addressing the pollen representation of extant vegetation to be sound. However, calibration studies are rare in the Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot, particularly regarding plant diversity. Here, we contribute to filling this gap by investigating the modern pollen signature of Mediterranean vegetation across a large environmental gradient in northern Greece. At each sampling site ( n = 61), we quantitatively compared the composition and diversity of plant (vegetation surveys) and pollen assemblages (moss/topsoil samples) using numerical techniques. Further, we compared these terrestrial pollen assemblages with those from lake sediment surface samples of the same region. We found an overall good match between plant and pollen assemblages, with maquis and mixed deciduous forest displaying particularly distinct pollen signatures. In contrast, the high regional importance of pines and oaks and their large pollen production blurred the pollen representation of other forested vegetation types and of shrublands and grasslands. Plant and pollen richness and their evenness showed similar declining trends with increasing altitude, but plant and pollen evenness bore a better match than richness. A more detailed vegetation-specific view on the data suggests that pine pollen seriously affected pollen richness and evenness in most of the pine-dominated stands. Lastly, our results suggest a rather straightforward application of vegetation-pollen relationships from moss/topsoil samples to interpret pollen assemblages from lakes in Mediterranean settings.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 31-38
Michael Gunter

This wide-ranging survey of the Kurds in Syria will evaluate the mid-term fall-out of the suddenly announced US withdrawal on October 7, 2019. It concludes that  1. The US dishonorably deserted its Syrian Kurdish ally, 2. Alienated future allies who would no longer trust it, 3. Allowed some of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) prisoners incarcerated by YPG guards to escape and potentially revive the genocidal jihadist organization, 4. Rewarded Turkish aggression, 5. Handed the murderous, but badly taxed Assad regime new life, 6. Facilitated Iran’s drive to the Mediterranean and potential threat to Israel, and, maybe most of all, 7. Empowered Russia as the ultimate arbitrator of the Syrian imbroglio to the detriment of the United States and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

2021 ◽  
Liliane Merlivat ◽  
Michael Hemming ◽  
Jacqueline Boutin ◽  
David Antoine ◽  
Vincenzo Vellucci ◽  

Abstract. Several trigger mechanisms have been proposed for the onset of the phytoplankton spring bloom. Among these, that phytoplankton cells begin to bloom when they experience higher average light levels in shallower mixed layers, a result of the surface net heat fluxes becoming positive and wind strength decreasing. We study the impact of these two forcings in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. We take advantage of hourly measurements of oceanic and atmospheric parameters collected at two neighboring moorings during the months of March and April in the years 2016 to 2019, combined with glider data in 2016. The onset of phytoplankton growth is concomitant with the start of significant biological activity detected by a sudden decrease in dissolved inorganic concentrations derived from measurements in the upper 10 m of the water column. A rapid reduction in wind stress following high-wind events is observed at the same time. A resulting shallow mixing layer favors carbon uptake by phytoplankton lasting a few days. Simultaneously, the air-sea net heat flux switches from negative to positive because of changes in the latent air-sea heat flux, which is proportional to the wind speed. This results in an increased thermal stratification of the ocean's surface layers. In 2016, glider data show that the mixing layer is significantly shallower than the mixed layer at the onset of the phytoplankton bloom. We conclude that decreases in the mixing and mixed layer depths lead to the onset of the phytoplankton bloom due to the relaxation of wind speed following storms. We estimate net daily community production in the mixing layer over periods of 3 days between 2016 and 2019 as between 38 mmol C m−2 and 191 mmol C m−2. These results have important implications on the oceanic carbon cycle and biological productivity estimates in the Mediterranean Sea in a scenario of climate-driven changes of the wind.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Francesco Armetta ◽  
Maria Luisa Saladino ◽  
Antonella Scherillo ◽  
Eugenio Caponetti

AbstractTwo Monterfortino helmets, recovered in the Mediterranean seabed, show unusual features with respect to the more common helmets of the same period and found in underwater environments. Hence, they were investigated by a multi-analytical approach, which allowed us to identify the compounds constituting the helmets and to make some considerations about their metallurgy, although all the metal was converted to degradation products. The helmets, originally made in bronze, have maintained their original shape because of copper sulphides formation. The observed differences in composition between the two helmets were attributed to the position modification, of one of them, into the seabed along centuries. For the first time, a microstructural investigation permits to reconstruct the history of the aging processes involved in the total oxidation of roman bronze helmet metal.

Ferhat Pehlivanoğlu ◽  
Cemil Erarslan ◽  
Sedanur Demir

Recently, the growing interest in healthy and organic nutrition has led to an increase in both the consumption and production of olive oil. The fact that olive and olive oil production is mostly concentrated in the countries with a coastline on the Mediterranean has rendered their olive oil exports important in meeting the increasing demand for olive oil. For the exporting countries, this has raised the issues of having a large share in the international olive oil market and increasing their competitiveness. The importance of increasing competitiveness, especially for countries that generate income from agricultural production, is the driving force for conducting this study. The aim of the study was to determine the factors affecting the comparative advantages of the leading olive oil-exporting countries. In this context, the olive oil production, consumption and unit export prices of Turkey, Spain, Italy, Portugal, Greece and Tunisia for the 2000–2019 period were tested with a panel data analysis method to ascertain whether these variables have any significant effect on the revealed comparative advantage (RCA) index. According to the findings, olive oil production affects the RCA index positively, whereas olive oil consumption affects it negatively in a statistically significant way.

2021 ◽  
Vol 29 (4) ◽  
Ramdane Ramdini ◽  
Reham Fathey Ali ◽  
Ghania Sadouk ◽  
Ferroudja Medjdoub-Bensaad

The goal of this study was to record the malacofauna of the Kabylia region, Tizi-Ouzou, in Northern Algeria, at the edge of the Mediterranean Sea, and to report the distribution pattern of terrestrial gastropod diversity in five different types of habitat (dune, agricultural fields, rural sites, forests, and mountain locations). A total of 33 species of terrestrial snails and slugs were recorded, which represented 27 genera of 19 families, mainly Geomitridae and Helicidae. The rural habitat was the richest, with 23 species, while the mountain habitat yielded 20 species. The dune and forest habitats showed the smallest species richness.

2021 ◽  
Vol 112 ◽  
pp. 197-236
Ivan Čižmář ◽  
Alžběta Danielisová

At a certain point in time, there were two central places in central Moravia: an older unfortified central agglomeration near the present-day village of Němčice nad Hanou and a younger oppidum at Staré Hradisko. Each of this centres had its own approach to raw materials, orientation of the socio-economic contacts, and possibly political focus as well. Němčice, being located at one of the main branches of the Amber Road, connected the Middle Danube area from the Mediterranean to the Adriatic; Staré Hradisko eventually expanded these contacts into a systematic trade network, being under the strong influence of the Bohemian region with links to Bavaria. During the LT C2, in addition to the location of the central place, changes took place in terms of material culture and settlement strategies in the region. This was further accentuated in LT D1 by the shift of settlements towards the west, to the vicinity of the oppidum and, at the same time, vacation of the corridor around the Morava River. In an attempt to chronologically assess the settlement pattern, it became evident how important it is to define, as precisely as possible, the dating of individual sites. This was only possible thanks to the detailed and extensive study of the material available (Čižmář 2018). Thanks to precise dating of settlements and classification based on the new chronology, the seemingly illogical group of settlements in central Moravia revealed a distinct settlement network which, in particular during the period contemporary with the oppidum, allows us to see the significant changes in the number of sites and in the orientation of long-distance contacts that were possibly associated with historical events.

2021 ◽  
Tugba Ozturk ◽  
Dominic Matte ◽  
Jens Hesselbjerg Christensen

AbstractEuropean climate is associated with variability and changes in the mid-latitude atmospheric circulation. In this study, we aim to investigate potential future change in circulation over Europe by using the EURO-CORDEX regional climate projections at 0.11° grid mesh. In particular, we analyze future change in 500-hPa geopotential height (Gph), 500-hPa wind speed and mean sea level pressure (MSLP) addressing different warming levels of 1 °C, 2 °C and 3 °C, respectively. Simple scaling with the global mean temperature change is applied to the regional climate projections for monthly mean 500-hPa Gph and 500-hPa wind speed. Results from the ensemble mean of individual models show a robust increase in 500-hPa Gph and MSLP in winter over Mediterranean and Central Europe, indicating an intensification of anticyclonic circulation. This circulation change emerges robustly in most simulations within the coming decade. There are also enhanced westerlies which transport warm and moist air to the Mediterranean and Central Europe in winter and spring. It is also clear that, models showing different responses to circulation depend very much on the global climate model ensemble member in which they are nested. For all seasons, particularly autumn, the ensemble mean is much more correlated with the end of the century than most of the individual models. In general, the emergence of a scaled pattern appears rather quickly.

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