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Ramesh Kumar ◽  
R.S. Yadav ◽  
Amit Kumawat ◽  
Vinay Nangia ◽  
N.D. Yadava ◽  

Background: Freshwater in sufficient quantity and adequate quality is a prerequisite for human societies and natural ecosystems. To adequately feed 9.3 billion people in 2050, consumptive water use (i.e. transpired water) by all food and fodder crops needs to increase from its present estimated level of 7000 km3/year to 12,586 km3/year. However, fresh water resources are increasingly getting scarce because of increased competition among a multitude of users. Getting agriculture to perform with progressively smaller allocation of renewable water resources will remain a challenge on global scale. To meet the challenge there is an urgent need to improve the crop water productivity to ensure the sustainability of agriculture. Methods: An experiment was carried out at village Menawali, Hanumangarh, Rajasthan during both kharif and rabi seasons to assess productivity, economics, N-uptake and water use of different crops. An area of 187 ha comprising 25 farmers irrigated by common irrigation channels were selected to collect the information. The information required i.e. soil, crop management, growth, phonological, yields, water balance, N-uptake and water use efficiency of each crops were collected from 15 farmers. Bt-cotton and clusterbean of kharif and wheat and Indian mustard in rabi were prominent crops, cotton-wheat, cotton-mustard, clusterbean-wheat and clusterbean-mustard were major cropping sequences of the study region. Result: In kharif season, Bt-cotton gave higher economic yields than clusterbean and amongst rabi season crops, economic yields of wheat and mustard were 4255, 1778 kg/ha, respectively. The economic yield of cropping sequences varied from 3741-6514 kg/ha and were higher for cotton-wheat (6218 kg/ha), intermediate for clusterbean-wheat (5785 kg/ha) and lower for cotton-mustard (3741 kg/ha) and clusterbean-mustard (3308 kg/ha). The cotton-wheat (₹1181.2 mm) sequence had highest water use. Clusterbean-wheat cropping system recorded highest water productivity (16.5 kg/ha mm) followed by clusterbean-mustard (14.9 kg/ha mm). The clusterbean-mustard (₹456/ha mm) cropping sequence was most profitable and fetched highest net return followed by clusterbean-wheat (₹383/ha mm).

PeerJ ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e12809
Sawitri Assanangkornchai ◽  
Kanittha Thaikla ◽  
Muhammadfahmee Talek ◽  
Darika Saingam

Background Many countries now allow the consumption of cannabis or cannabinoids for medical purposes with varying approaches concerning products allowed and the regulatory frameworks prevailing their endowment. On 18 February 2019 Thailand passed legislation allowing the use of cannabis for medical purposes. This study aimed to examine patterns and purposes for consumption of medical cannabis, and consumers’ perceptions and opinions towards benefits and harms of cannabis and related policies in 2019–2020. Methods A cross-sectional study using a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method was conducted in four sites across Thailand. Participants were 485 adults aged 18 years and over, living in the study region, who had used cannabis for medical purposes within the past 12 months. Face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire were used to collect data on (1) demographic characteristics, (2) pattern of consumption, (3) source of information and perception of benefits and harms of medical cannabis, and (4) opinion towards cannabis policies. Data were analyzed using RDS Analyst and presented as percentage and mean with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results Most participants (84.7%, 95% CI [78.9–90.5]) used an oral form of crude oil extract while 9.2% (95% CI [4.1–14.2]) used the raw form. The most common uses were for treatment of cancers (23.3%, 95% CI [16.1–30.4]), neuropsychiatric symptoms (22.8%, 95% CI [17.5–28.0]), and musculoskeletal pains (21.6%, 95% CI [16.7–26.6]). Illegal sources such as underground traders (54.5%, 95% CI [40.8–68.3]), friends and relatives (12.2%, 95% CI [6.2–18.3]), not-for-profit provider groups (5.2%, 95% CI [0.5–10.9]), and clandestine growers or producers (2.9%, 95% CI [0.6–5.3]) were the main suppliers. Most (>80%) perceived cannabis could treat cancers, chronic pains, insomnia, Parkinson’s disease and generalized anxiety disorder. Less than half perceived that cannabis could cause adverse conditions e.g., palpitation, panic, memory impairment and schizophrenic-like psychosis. Most respondents agreed or strongly agreed with the policies regarding permission to use cannabis for medical purposes (95.1%, 95% CI [92.0–98.2]), for the legal sale of medical cannabis products (95.9%, 95% CI [93.7–98.2]), and for people to grow cannabis for medical use (94.2%, 95% CI [91.8–96.5]). However, only two-thirds agreed with policies concerning the sales of cannabis (65.3%, 95% CI [56.9–73.7]) and home-grown cannabis for recreational purposes (61.3%, 95% CI [52.7–69.9]). Conclusion Our study reports the experiences of consumers of medical cannabis in the first year after its legalization in Thailand. Consumers reported various patterns and indications of consumption that were not supported by scientific evidence, but had positive perception of the results of consumption. These findings highlight ongoing policy challenges for Thailand and can be a lesson to be learned for other countries in the region.

Felix Zitzmann ◽  
Michael Reich

AbstractWe surveyed occurrence and activity of large- and medium-sized mammals on six commercial mini-rotation short-rotation coppice (SRC) plantations in northern Germany by camera trapping in different seasons (winter, late summer). In total, eleven species (6–9 per site) were detected. This corresponds to the majority of mammal species occurring in the study region. Roe deer, wild boar and red fox were found across all sites. All other species were detected on fewer sites and some in only one of the seasons. Roe deer was the most active species both in terms of visit frequency (days with detection) and use intensity (detection numbers). With few exceptions on individual sites, all other species showed significantly lower activity. Number of detected species and activity of most of the species did not differ between seasons. Furthermore, there were no differences between near-edge and central areas of the crops with regard to the activity of the occurring species. Activity of individual species on different sites, however, differed considerably in some cases. Our results show that a wide range of mammal species are basically able to include SRC into their habitat utilisation. However, the sporadic use by most species indicates a rather limited current habitat value of the surveyed plantations. Options to increase the habitat value of SRC for mammals are suggested, but their effectiveness needs to be tested in future studies. Since the spatial and temporal scope of our study was limited and only SRC of a uniform age-class were considered, our results are not immediately applicable to other landscapes, seasons or types and management phases of SRC. Therefore, further research is required that considers these aspects as well as species-specific patterns of habitat selection in comparison to other habitat types.

Atmosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 103
Zhenwang Li ◽  
Zhengchao Qiu ◽  
Haixiao Ge ◽  
Changwen Du

Short episodes of low-temperature stress during reproductive stages can cause significant crop yield losses, but our understanding of the dynamics of extreme cold events and their impact on rice growth and yield in the past and present climate remains limited. In this study, by analyzing historical climate, phenology and yield component data, the spatial and temporal variability of cold stress during the rice heading and flowering stages and its impact on rice growth and yield in China was characterized. The results showed that cold stress was unevenly distributed throughout the study region, with the most severe events observed in the Yunnan Plateau with altitudes higher than 1800 m. With the increasing temperature, a significant decreasing trend in cold stress was observed across most of the three ecoregions after the 1970s. However, the phenological-shift effects with the prolonged growing period during the heading and flowering stages have slowed down the cold stress decreasing trend and led to an underestimation of the magnitude of cold stress events. Meanwhile, cold stress during heading and flowering will still be a potential threat to rice production. The cold stress-induced yield loss is related to both the intensification of extreme cold stress and the contribution of related components to yield in the three regions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 295-317
Qiansi Tu ◽  
Frank Hase ◽  
Matthias Schneider ◽  
Omaira García ◽  
Thomas Blumenstock ◽  

Abstract. The objective of this study is to derive methane (CH4) emissions from three landfills, which are found to be the most significant CH4 sources in the metropolitan area of Madrid in Spain. We derive CH4 emissions from the CH4 enhancements observed by spaceborne and ground-based instruments. We apply satellite-based measurements from the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) together with measurements from the ground-based COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network (COCCON) instruments. In 2018, a 2-week field campaign for measuring the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases was performed in Madrid in the framework of Monitoring of the Greenhouse Gases Concentrations in Madrid (MEGEI-MAD) project. Five COCCON instruments were deployed at different locations around the Madrid city center, enabling the observation of total column-averaged CH4 mixing ratios (XCH4). Considering the prevalent wind regimes, we calculate the wind-assigned XCH4 anomalies for two opposite wind directions. Pronounced bipolar plumes are found when applying the method to NO2, which implies that our method of wind-assigned anomaly is suitable to estimate enhancements of trace gases at the urban level from satellite-based measurements. For quantifying the CH4 emissions, the wind-assigned plume method is applied to the TROPOMI XCH4 and to the lower tropospheric CH4 / dry-air column ratio (TXCH4) of the combined TROPOMI+IASI product. As CH4 emission strength we estimate 7.4 × 1025 ± 6.4 × 1024 molec. s−1 from the TROPOMI XCH4 data and 7.1 × 1025 ± 1.0 × 1025 molec. s−1 from the TROPOMI+IASI merged TXCH4 data. We use COCCON observations to estimate the local source strength as an independent method. COCCON observations indicate a weaker CH4 emission strength of 3.7 × 1025 molec. s−1 from a local source (the Valdemingómez waste plant) based on observations from a single day. This strength is lower than the one derived from the satellite observations, and it is a plausible result. This is because the analysis of the satellite data refers to a larger area, covering further emission sources in the study region, whereas the signal observed by COCCON is generated by a nearby local source. All emission rates estimated from the different observations are significantly larger than the emission rates provided via the official Spanish Register of Emissions and Pollutant Sources.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 603
Ziyue Zhang ◽  
Bo Su ◽  
Yuanyuan Chen ◽  
Jinjing Lan ◽  
Muhammad Bilal ◽  

The optical characteristics of vertically distributed aerosols over Saudi Arabia were investigated using the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) data from 2007 to 2019. The study region was divided into three parts (Region I: Tabuk, Makkah, Al Madinah, Asir, Al Bahah, Jizan, Riyadh, Mecca, Medina, the eastern region, Kassim, Hale, Asir, Baha, Tabuk, the northern border region, Jizan, Najilan, and Jufu. Region II: Ar, Al, Ha, Al, and Najran. Region III Al Hudud ash Shamaliyah and Ash Sharqiyah) to understand regional aerosol characteristics by performing interannual and seasonal analysis for nine aerosol types during the day and nighttime. We found that the aerosol optical depth (AOD) estimates were the highest over eastern Saudi Arabia (region III) and were seemingly driven by the presence of an expansive desert in the region. As anticipated, the AOD observations were substantially higher in spring and summer than in autumn and winter owing to the frequent occurrence of dust events during the former. Daytime observations exhibited higher AOD values than those at nighttime, which might be related to higher daytime anthropogenic activities. The estimates of the base height of the lowest aerosol layer (HB1) and the top altitude of the highest aerosol layer (TAH) were altered depending on the topography (the higher the altitude, the higher the annual mean value of HB1 and TAH). The aerosol layers (N) were relatively abundant over region III, seemingly due to the relatively stronger atmospheric convection over this region. The volume depolarization ratio of the lowest aerosol layer (VDR1) was considerable during the night due to deposition at nighttime, and VDR1 was relatively substantial in spring and summer. The color ratio of the lowest aerosol layer (CR1) estimates over regions II and III was higher at night. We report a weak positive correlation between the thickness of the lowest aerosol layer (HTH1) and the AOD of the lowest aerosol layer (AOD1) in the three regions, a strong positive correlation between TAH and N, and a negative correlation between the AOD proportion of the lowest aerosol layer (PAOD1) and N in Saudi Arabia. In this paper, the optical and physical properties of aerosols in Saudi Arabia have been studied for 13 years. Our results could provide references for researchers and the government, and relevant departments with data support on the aerosol layer to help control air pollution in Saudi Arabia.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 158
Xiaofeng Huang ◽  
Wenwen Hua ◽  
Xingying Dai

The rapid development of urbanization and industrialization brings a series of problems of environment governance, and several basins are facing huge pressure. This paper selects the Taihu basin in the Yangtze River Delta of China as the study area, establishes the DPSIR model to measure the water environment governance performance of the region (), analyzes the causes of changes in the five subsystems (the governance performance of the subsystems is recorded as ), and uses the diagnostic model to identify the barrier factors that restrict the improvement of in the last 5 years. The results show that during the study period, of the driving force subsystem generally tends to increase and maintains a steady growth, which is closely linked to economic growth in the basin; of the pressure subsystem increases with a small fluctuation, and the pollution generation still needs attention; in the state subsystem, shows a large fluctuation, and varies significantly in a cyclical manner, corresponding to the short maintenance time and repeated treatment of pollution in the watershed; of the impact subsystem shows an overall upward but a slightly slower trend, and it is related to the fact that the industrial structure of the basin still needs to be improved; and of the response subsystem shows an overall upward trend and a slightly larger increase, and the multi-actor collaborative management has helped a lot. The main barrier factors include key cross-sections’ water quality compliance rate, the water quality compliance rate of key water function areas, water consumption per 10,000 yuan of industrial added value, and the lake trophic status index. Based on the results of the study, the article gives recommendations for watershed governance, such as controlling pollution generation, optimising industrial structure, using technological tools to help governance, sharing the cost of governance among multiple parties and strengthening supervision The findings help to make scientific environmental protection planning and policies of the study region. The research can also provide experience for other countries and regions in watershed governance.

2022 ◽  
Bilel Abdelkarim ◽  
Faten Telahigue ◽  
Belgacem Agoubi

Abstract In Gabès region (southeastern Tunisia), given the semi-arid to arid climate conditions, groundwater is an essential resource to supply the growth needs of the socio-economic development. To ensure sustainable development and preserve water resources, a careful estimation of the present day recharge amount and the delineation of the potential zones of rainfall precipitation are of required for an accurate evaluation of regional water balance. In this context, this study aims to a preliminary assessment of groundwater recharge in Gabes basin in regard to the delineation of the potential recharge areas of phreatic aquifers. Thus, a geological and hydrogeological collected database coupled with remote sensing techniques (RST) were used for the determination of the lateral variation of recharging zone ,Treatment by ArcGIS and Matlab softwares and Kohonen self-organizing maps (K-SOM) approaches.The obtained results indicate that five recharge potential areas have been identified and classified as 27% very low, 23% low, 40% moderate recharge, 7% good and 3 % very good potential recharge located principally on southern part of the study region .This distribution is controlled principally by the geomorphological, geologic, and hydrogeologic features of the region . Reasonable management strategies based on a perennial exploitation of these low renewable resources are required to optimize the water dependent socio-economic development. The estimated groundwater potential recharge of Gabès aquifer system using K-SOM and RST is of 11.4 Mm3.y-1. This recharging rate is very low it present 7% of the total rain, thus it must be ameliorated. K-SOM and RST approach is a useful method for groundwater potential recharge mapping and is a helpful of wells establishment and groundwater sustainable isotopic analyses is recommended to ameliorate the decision maker to establish the adequate strategy.

Neethu Chacko ◽  
M M Ali

This study examines the effect of surface currents on the bulk algorithm calculation of wind stress estimated using the scatterometer data during 2007-2020 in the Indian Ocean. In the study region as a whole the wind stress decreased by 5.4% by including currents into the wind stress equation. The most significant reduction in the wind stress is found along the most energetic regions with strong currents such as Somali Current, Equatorial Jets and Aghulhas retroflection. A highest reduction of 11.5% is observed along the equator where the Equatorial Jets prevail. A sensitivity analysis has been carried out for the study region and for different seasons to assess the relative impact of winds and currents in the estimation of wind stress by changing the winds while keeping the currents constants and vice versa. The inclusion of currents decreased the wind stress and this decrease is prominent when the currents are stronger. This study showed that equatorial Indian Ocean is the most sensitive region where the current can impact on wind stress estimation. The results showed that uncertainties in the wind stress estimations are quite large at regional levels and hence better representation of wind stress incorporating ocean currents should be considered in the ocean/climatic models for accurate air-sea interaction studies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (2) ◽  
pp. 127-136
Ram Krishna Tiwari ◽  
Harihar Paudyal

To establish the relations between b-value and fractal dimension (D0) for the earthquake distribution, we study the regional variations of those parameters in the central Himalaya region. The earthquake catalog of 989 events (Mc = 4.0) from 1994.01.31 to 2020.10.28 was analyzed in the study. The study region is divided into two sub-regions (I) Region A: 27.3°N -30.3°N and 80°E -84.8°E (western Nepal and vicinity) and (II) Region B: 26.4°N -28.6°N and 84.8°E -88.4°E (eastern Nepal and vicinity). The b-value observed is within the range between 0.92 to 1.02 for region A and 0.64 to 0.74 for region B showing the homogeneous nature of the variation. The seismic a-value for those regions ranges respectively between 5.385 to 6.007 and 4.565 to 5.218. The low b-values and low seismicity noted for region B may be related with less heterogeneity and high strength in the crust. The high seismicity with average b-values obtained for region A may be related with high heterogeneity and low strength in the crust. The fractal dimension ≥1.74 for region A and ≥ 1.82 for region B indicate that the earthquakes were distributed over two-dimensional embedding space. The observed correlation between D0 and b is negative for western Nepal and positive for eastern Nepal while the correlation between D0 and a/b value is just opposite for the respective regions. The findings identify both regions as high-stress regions. The results coming from the study agree with the results of the preceding works and reveal information about the local disparity of stress and change in tectonic complexity in the central Himalaya region.

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