Climatic Conditions
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Sheila D. P. da Silva ◽  
Gracielle P. de Souza ◽  
Agnaldo R. de M. Chaves ◽  
Marcelle A. da Silva ◽  
Rafaela R. de Souza ◽  

ABSTRACT Knowledge of how climatic conditions affect plant morphophysiology is essential for understanding how to manage the growth cycles of different crops. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the growing seasons in a semi-arid area on the morphophysiological variables of ornamental sunflower plants. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design in a split-plot arrangement with four replicates. Six cultivars (‘Bonito de Outono Sortido’, ‘Sol Noturno’, ‘Sol Vermelho’, ‘Jardim Amarelo Alto’, ‘Girassol F1 Sunbright Supreme’ and ‘Girassol F1 Vincents Choice’) were evaluated in the main plots and two different growing seasons (GS) in the subplots (GS1 - warm climate and GS2 - mild climate). Evaluations of gas exchange, chlorophyll indices, and leaf surface area were carried out at the reproductive stage (R5.5). The cultivation of ornamental sunflowers in semi-arid regions was significantly affected by the growing season. Changes in gas exchange variables and the morphophysiology of ornamental sunflower plants in the two growing seasons reflected the high phenotypic plasticity characteristic of this species. The cultivation of ornamental sunflowers under semi-arid conditions in the growing season, when air temperature and solar radiation are high, could be limited due to elevated transpiration rates. Therefore, it is recommended that they are grown mainly during the moderate climatic season in semi-arid regions.

HortScience ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 57 (2) ◽  
pp. 239-246
Krishna Nemali

Modern greenhouses are intensive farming systems designed to achieve high efficiency and productivity. Plants are produced year-round in greenhouses by maintaining the environment at or near optimum levels regardless of extreme weather conditions. Many scientific discoveries and technological advancements that happened in the past two centuries paved the way for current state-of-the-art greenhouses. These include, but are not limited to, advancements in climate-specific structural designs and glazing materials, and temperature control, artificial lighting, and hydroponic production systems. Greenhouse structures can be broadly grouped into four distinct designs, including tall Venlo greenhouses of the Netherlands, passive solar greenhouses of China, low-cost Parral greenhouses of the Mediterranean region, and gutter-connected polyethylene houses of India and African countries. These designs were developed to suit local climatic conditions and maximize the return on investment. Although glass and rigid plastic options are available for glazing, the development of low-cost and lightweight plastic glazing materials (e.g., polyethylene) enabled widespread growth of the greenhouse industry in the developing world. For temperate regions, supplemental lighting technology is crucial for year-round production. This heavily relies on advancements in electro-lighting during the 19th and 20th centuries. The development of hydroponic production systems for the controlled delivery of nutrients further enhanced crop productivity. This article addresses important historical events, scientific discoveries, and technological improvements related to advancements in these areas.

2022 ◽  
Vol 158 ◽  
pp. 112109
Christian Thiel ◽  
Ana Gracia Amillo ◽  
Alessandro Tansini ◽  
Anastasios Tsakalidis ◽  
Georgios Fontaras ◽  

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 210
Gilbert Koskey ◽  
Federico Leoni ◽  
Stefano Carlesi ◽  
Luciano Avio ◽  
Paolo Bàrberi

Relay intercropping is considered a valuable agroecological practice to increase and stabilize crop yields while ensuring the provision of several ecosystem services as well as sustainability and resilience to changing climatic conditions. However, farmers are still reluctant in the use of intercropping practices since there is a huge knowledge gap regarding the time of sowing, sowing ratio, crop stand density, and cultivar choice. In this study, we carried out a 3-year field experiment in Central Italy to assess the effect of relay intercropping on the agronomic performance and competitiveness of winter durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. cv. Minosse) and spring lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. cv. Elsa) under a low-input management system, comparing different crop stand types (monocrop vs. intercrop) and target plant densities (350 plants m2—full dose vs. 116 plants m2—1/3 dose). The results revealed that intercropping increased grain yield compared to monocropping: significantly (p < 0.0001) against both monocrops in 2021 and non-significantly against durum wheat in 2019 and 2020. Yield advantage in both intercropping systems ranged between 164 and 648%. Durum wheat competitiveness was stronger in 2019 and 2021, while lentil was the most competitive component in 2020. Intercropping favored P accumulation in durum wheat shoots. There was no difference in grain yield of both crops between the highly- and lowly-dense system in 2020 and 2021. Both intercropping strategies were as effective as mechanical hoeing in controlling weeds and proved beneficial in stabilizing lentil productivity. Further economic analysis capturing the additional costs incurred in intercropping and mechanical weeding would highlight the magnitude of profitability of these systems.

Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 124
Carlos Ivan Briones-Herrera ◽  
Daniel José Vega-Nieva ◽  
Jaime Briseño-Reyes ◽  
Norma Angélica Monjarás-Vega ◽  
Pablito Marcelo López-Serrano ◽  

Context and Background. Active fires have the potential to provide early estimates of fire perimeters, but there is a lack of information about the best active fire aggregation distances and how they can vary between fuel types, particularly in large areas of study under diverse climatic conditions. Objectives. The current study aimed at analyzing the effect of aggregation distances for mapping fire perimeters from active fires for contrasting fuel types and regions in Mexico. Materials and Methods. Detections of MODIS and VIIRS active fires from the period 2012–2018 were used to obtain perimeters of aggregated active fires (AGAF) at four aggregation distances (750, 1000, 1125, and 1500 m). AGAF perimeters were compared against MODIS MCD64A1 burned area for a total of 24 fuel types and regions covering all the forest area of Mexico. Results/findings. Optimum aggregation distances varied between fuel types and regions, with the longest aggregation distances observed for the most arid regions and fuel types dominated by shrubs and grasslands. Lowest aggregation distances were obtained in the regions and fuel types with the densest forest canopy and more humid climate. Purpose/Novelty. To our best knowledge, this study is the first to analyze the effect of fuel type on the optimum aggregation distance for mapping fire perimeters directly from aggregated active fires. The methodology presented here can be used operationally in Mexico and elsewhere, by accounting for fuel-specific aggregation distances, for improving rapid estimates of fire perimeters. These early fire perimeters could be potentially available in near-real time (at every satellite pass with a 12 h latency) in operational fire monitoring GIS systems to support rapid assessment of fire progression and fire suppression planning.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 144
Mohammed Rasheed Igbal

Climate change is one of the most crucial challenges identified in this century for the Pacific Region, such as Fiji, Samoa, Solomon Islands and many more. Citizens of Fiji have gone through peculiarly climatic and weather conditions over the past years like globalization, which had led to many consequences, especially in the agricultural sector which is the main income of many livelihoods not only in Fiji but in other Pacific countries as well. Climatic conditions have been changing adversely from past decades, such as temperature, rise in the sea level, precipitation changes, atmospheric composition changes, flooding, and tropical cyclones. These changes have led to alterations in the environment, thus, affecting crop and livestock production in the agricultural system. For instance, crops that require specific soil and temperature situations are vastly influenced when the temperature level changes suddenly, making the crops vulnerable to adapt to the alterations and therefore, the crops eventually die. Likewise, animal species also get affected by temperature changes, such as heat stress which specifically affects the fertility of male and female livestock. Due to these events, Fiji&rsquo;s economies have also been affected since agriculture plays a vital role in boosting our economy through local market sales and exporting. Thereby, this review illustrates the impacts of climate change and ways to move forward/ solutions, for example, FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) and Pacific Islands Climate Change Assistance Program (PICCAP) have supported Fiji in bringing adaptation programs for preparing farmers and all other individuals on the upcoming climatic conditions such as adapting tolerant crops that can handle droughts and other adverse weather conditions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 914
Heba Elbasiouny ◽  
Hassan El-Ramady ◽  
Fathy Elbehiry ◽  
Vishnu D. Rajput ◽  
Tatiana Minkina ◽  

The climate is one of the key elements impacting several cycles connected to soil and plant systems, as well as plant production, soil quality, and environmental quality. Due to heightened human activity, the rate of CO2 is rising in the atmosphere. Changing climatic conditions (such as temperature, CO2, and precipitation) influence plant nutrition in a range of ways, comprising mineralization, decomposition, leaching, and losing nutrients in the soil. Soil carbon sequestration plays an essential function—not only in climate change mitigation but also in plant nutrient accessibility and soil fertility. As a result, there is a significant interest globally in soil carbon capture from atmospheric CO2 and sequestration in the soil via plants. Adopting effective management methods and increasing soil carbon inputs over outputs will consequently play a crucial role in soil carbon sequestration (SCseq) and plant nutrition. As a result, boosting agricultural yield is necessary for food security, notoriously in developing countries. Several unanswered problems remain regarding climate change and its impacts on plant nutrition and global food output, which will be elucidated over time. This review provides several remarkable pieces of information about the influence of changing climatic variables on plant nutrients (availability and uptake). Additionally, it addresses the effect of soil carbon sequestration, as one of climate change mitigations, on plant nutrition and how relevant management practices can positively influence this.

Buildings ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 80
Hafiz Suliman Munawar ◽  
Mohammad Mojtahedi ◽  
Ahmed W. A. Hammad ◽  
Michael J. Ostwald ◽  
S. Travis Waller

The Hawkesbury-Nepean Valley, Australia’s longest coastal catchment, is spanned by a river system of more than 470 km, that runs from Goulburn to Broken Bay, covering a total area of over 2.2 million hectares. This region has remained prone to flood events, with considerable mortalities, economic impacts and infrastructural losses occurring quite regularly. The topography, naturally variable climatic conditions and the ‘bathtub’ effect in the region are responsible for the frequent flood events. In response, the Government at the national/federal, state and local level has focused on the design of efficient flood risk management strategies with appropriate evacuation plans for vulnerable communities from hospitals, schools, childcare and aged care facilities during a flood event. Despite these overarching plans, specialized response and evacuation plans for aged care facilities are critical to reducing the loss incurred by flood events in the region. This is the focus of this present paper, which reviews the history of flood events and responses to them, before examining the utilization of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques during flood events to overcome the flood risks. An early flood warning system, based on AI/Machine Learning (ML) strategy is being suggested for a timely decision, enhanced disaster prediction, assessment and response necessary to overcome the flood risks associated with aged care facilities within the Hawkesbury-Nepean region. A framework entailing AI/ML methods for identifying the safest route to the destination using UAV and path planning has been proposed for timely disaster response and evacuation of the residents of aged care facilities.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (12) ◽  
Elizamar Ciríaco Da Silva ◽  
José Roberto Vieira Aragão ◽  
Iére Barros Bispo ◽  
Islayne da Cruz Menezes ◽  
Hugo Henrique Costa Do Nascimento

Triplaris gardneriana Wedd is a deciduous riparian tree occurring in areas with different climatic conditions in Brazil, from the rainforest to the tropical dry forest. An increase in global temperature and drought events can change the growth pattern and establishment of the species. To evaluate the effects of intermittent drought on the growth of T. gardneriana seedlings, an experiment was performed using seedlings with one month old subjected to three water treatments (daily irrigation as control, and intermittent drought through cycles of water suppression of seven (S7) and 14 days-intervals (S14) between watering. Growth, biomass production and partitioning, relative water content (RWC), the accumulation of organic solutes, protoplasmic integrity and phenotypic plasticity index (PPI) were evaluated for a better understanding about its drought tolerance level. Intermittent drought severely affected plants growth in S14 plants, showing lower plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, and dry biomass. RWC was reduced, while carbohydrates and proline contents increased in response to drought stress. Protoplasmic damage increased electrolyte leakage in plants subjected to severe stress. However, T. garderiana demonstrated moderate tolerance to water deficit. The plastic changes observed were more physiological than morphological.  Therefore, T. gardneriana seems to be a moderately tolerant species to intermittent drought.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ayomide Emmanuel Fadiji ◽  
Olubukola Oluranti Babalola ◽  
Gustavo Santoyo ◽  
Michele Perazzolli

Crop plants are more often exposed to abiotic stresses in the current age of fast-evolving climate change. This includes exposure to extreme and unpredictable changes in climatic conditions, phytosanitary hazards, and cultivation conditions, which results in drastic losses in worldwide agricultural productions. Plants coexist with microbial symbionts, some of which play key roles in the ecosystem and plant processes. The application of microbial biostimulants, which take advantage of symbiotic relationships, is a long-term strategy for improving plant productivity and performance, even in the face of climate change-associated stresses. Beneficial filamentous fungi, yeasts, and bacteria are examples of microbial biostimulants, which can boost the growth, yield, nutrition and stress tolerance in plants. This paper highlights recent information about the role of microbial biostimulants and their potential application in mitigating the abiotic stresses occurring on crop plants due to climate change. A critical evaluation for their efficient use under diverse climatic conditions is also made. Currently, accessible products generally improve cultural conditions, but their action mechanisms are mostly unknown, and their benefits are frequently inconsistent. Thus, further studies that could lead to the more precisely targeted products are discussed.

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