The paper proposes an approach to assessing the allowed signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for light detection and ranging (LiDAR) of unmanned autonomous vehicles based on the predetermined probability of false alarms under various intentional and unintentional influencing factors. The focus of this study is on the relevant issue of the safe use of LiDAR data and measurement systems within the “smart city” infrastructure. The research team analyzed and systematized various external impacts on the LiDAR systems, as well as the state-of-the-art approaches to improving their security and resilience. It has been established that the current works on the analysis of external influences on the LiDARs and methods for their mitigation focus mainly on physical (hardware) approaches (proposing most often other types of modulation and optical signal frequencies), and less often software approaches, through the use of additional anomaly detection techniques and data integrity verification systems, as well as improving the efficiency of data filtering in the cloud point. In addition, the sources analyzed in this paper do not offer methodological support for the design of the LiDAR in the very early stages of their creation, taking into account a priori assessment of the allowed SNR threshold and probability of detecting a reflected pulse and the requirements to minimize the probability of “missing” an object when scanning with no a priori assessments of the detection probability characteristics of the LiDAR. The authors propose a synthetic approach as a mathematical tool for designing a resilient LiDAR system. The approach is based on the physics of infrared radiation, the Bayesian theory, and the Neyman–Pearson criterion. It features the use of a predetermined threshold for false alarms, the probability of interference in the analytics, and the characteristics of the LiDAR’s receivers. The result is the analytical solution to the problem of calculating the allowed SNR while stabilizing the level of “false alarms” in terms of background noise caused by a given type of interference. The work presents modelling results for the “false alarm” probability values depending on the selected optimality criterion. The efficiency of the proposed approach has been proven by the simulation results of the received optical power of the LiDAR’s signal based on the calculated SNR threshold and noise values.
In part 1 of this article, the authors looked at the enormous possibilities for medication errors to occur ( https://doi.org/10.12968/coan.2021.0033 ). In this second part, the authors consider what can be done to avoid medication errors happening in veterinary practice and how systems of work can be used to help. As identified in the Institute of Medicine's report To Err Is Human, most errors result from faulty systems and processes, not individuals. Before steps can be put in place to avoid medication errors, it must be acknowledged that we are all human and thus susceptible to cognitive biases and external influences that cause us to make mistakes. Hence, any interventions put in place should focus on adjusting systems of work to make it easier to do things right and more difficult to do things wrong.
Examining influence, the “E” phase of the VECTOR virtual coaching process, focuses on locus of control. Many conditions and circumstances influence an educator's life and practice; however, the external influences are often outside the educator's control. In this chapter, the authors describe a variety of these influences, and they use examples and anecdotes to guide the reader to a better understanding of this phase. They also offer practical tips for working with educators to determine the things in their sphere of influence so that precious coaching time is not wasted on issues, circumstances, and conditions outside their control. Finally, the authors explain why this phase is essential before a goal can be set in the C-commit to change phase.
Family is the first environment recognized by children. Children spend most of their time with family. In family environment, parents have important roles in shaping children's personality because their habits can be imitated by the children. In a family, everyone is influential, but the father and mother are the most influential. Educating children is the most important task for parents because it can affect the success of the family. However, the success of the family means nothing if it fails in educating and shaping children’s character and personality in accordance with the parents’ expectations. Family is the most significant institution in shaping children’s personalities. The essence of education is the responsibility of the family, while formal education is only a part of it. Parents have the greatest role to influence children when they are sensitive to external influences by educating them according to their own pace. Parents are the ones who should know best when and how their children learn.
Etiology of pre-eclampsiaremainsunclear. However, it is recognized that genetic factors of both mothers and fathers sides can determine the development of this awesome complication of pregnancy. The interplay of genetic factors with external influences determines the risk level of pre-eclampsia. Today it is reasonable to assert that pre-eclampsia is a complication of pregnancy associated with the disturbances of the process of trophoblast invasion and changes in haemodynamics in spiral arteries. The process of trophoblast invasion proved to be coordinated by combined interaction of cytokines, factors of adhesion and different growth factors.Functional abnormalities of endothelium of placental and pre-placental vessels may be a result but not a cause of development ofpre-eclampsia, pathophysiology of which is studied still insufficiently. However, the disturbance оf NO, endothelein release and thrombocytes homeostasis as well are certain to be the main manifestations of this pregnancy complication. A fter revealing all the mechanisms of process of trophoblast invasion disturbances an actual possibility of early prevention and treatment of pre-eclampsia may be elaborated.
Теоретически проанализирована высокоскоростная деформация сплавов, содержащих зоны Гинье-Престона, в условиях высокоэнергетических внешних воздействий. Анализ выполнен в рамках теории динамического взаимодействия структурных дефектов. Исследуемый механизм диссипации заключается в необратимом переходе энергии внешних воздействий в энергию дислокационных колебаний. Получено аналитическое выражение динамического предела текучести с учетом всех структурных дефектов, содержащихся в сплаве. Показано, что в условиях высокоэнергетических внешних воздействий наноразмерные дефекты влияют на характер зависимости механических свойств от концентрации атомов второго компонента. Зависимость динамического предела текучести от концентрации атомов второго компонента становится немонотонной и имеет минимум. Выполнены численные оценки концентрации, при которой предел текучести становится минимальным. При таком значении концентрации происходит переход от доминирования торможения дислокации зонами Гинье-Престона к доминированию торможения атомами второго компонента.
The high strain rate deformation of alloys containing Guinier-Preston zones under high-energy external influences has been theoretically analyzed. The analysis was carried out within the framework of the theory of dynamic interaction of structural defects. The investigated dissipation mechanism consists in the irreversible transfer of energy of an external impact into the energy of dislocation vibrations. An analytical expression for the dynamic yield stress taking into account all structural defects of the alloy has been obtained. It is shown that, under high-energy external influences, nanoscale defects affect the nature of the dependence of mechanical properties on the concentration of atoms of the second component. The dependence of the dynamic yield stress on the atomic concentration of the second component becomes nonmonotonic and has a minimum. Numerical estimates of the concentration corresponding to the minimum yield stress has been made. At this concentration value, a transition occurs from the dominance of the dislocation drag by the Guinier-Preston zones to the dominance of the drag by the atoms of the second component.