benefit analysis
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2022 ◽  
Vol 306 ◽  
pp. 114386
Shannon M. White ◽  
Martin Schaefer ◽  
Peter Barfield ◽  
Ruth Cantrell ◽  
Gordon J. Watson

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (GROUP) ◽  
pp. 1-26
Sukeshini A. Grandhi ◽  
Linda Plotnick

This study explores privacy concerns perceived by people with respect to having their DNA tested by direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing companies such as 23andMe and Data collected from 510 respondents indicate that those who have already obtained a DTC genetic test have significantly lower levels of privacy and security concerns than those who have not obtained a DTC genetic test. Qualitative data from respondents of both these groups show that the concerns are mostly similar. However, the factors perceived to alleviate privacy concerns are more varied and nuanced amongst those who have obtained a DTC genetic test. Our data suggest that privacy concerns or lack of concerns are based on complex and multiple considerations including data ownership, access control of data and regulatory authorities of social, political and legal systems. Respondents do not engage in a full cost/benefit analysis of having their DNA tested.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0260877
Bekele Hundie Kotu ◽  
Abdul Rahman Nurudeen ◽  
Francis Muthoni ◽  
Irmgard Hoeschle-Zeledon ◽  
Fred Kizito

This study was conducted to assess the potential impact of applying a new groundnut planting density on welfare of smallholder farmers in northern Ghana. We used data from on-farm experiments, focus group discussions, and a household survey. We followed three steps in our analysis. First, we conducted cost-benefit analysis in which we showed the economic advantage of the new technology over the farmers’ practice. Second, we predicted adoption rates along timeline using the Adoption and Diffusion Outcome Prediction Tool (ADOPT). Third, using the results of the first and the second steps, we estimated the potential impact of the technology on poverty at household level using a combination of methods such as economic surplus model and econometric model. The cost-benefit analysis shows that increasing plant density increases farmers’ financial returns i.e., the benefit-cost-ratio increases from 1.05 under farmers’ practice to 1.87 under the best plant density option, which is 22 plants/sqm. The adoption prediction analysis shows that the maximum adoption rate for the best practice will be 62% which will take about nine years to reach. At the maximum adoption rate the incidence of extreme poverty will be reduced by about 3.6% if farmers have access to the international groundnut market and by about 2% if they do not have. The intervention will also reduce poverty gap and poverty severity. The results suggest that policy actions which can improve farmers’ access to the international market will enhance farmers’ welfare more than the situation in which farmers have access to domestic markets only. Furthermore, promoting a more integrated groundnut value-chain can broaden the demand base of the produce resulting in higher and sustainable impact of the technology on the welfare of groundnut producers and beyond.

Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 81
Michal Stein ◽  
Liat Ashkenazi-Hoffnung ◽  
David Greenberg ◽  
Ilan Dalal ◽  
Gilat Livni ◽  

As of October 2021, SARS-CoV-2 infections were reported among 512,613 children and adolescents in Israel (~33% of all COVID-19 cases). The 5–11-year age group accounted for about 43% (223,850) of affected children and adolescents. In light of the availability of the Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 vaccine against COVID-19 for children aged 5–11 years, we aimed to write a position paper for pediatricians, policymakers and families regarding the clinical aspects of COVID-19 and the vaccination of children against COVID-19. The first objective of this review was to describe the diverse facets of the burden of COVID-19 in children, including the direct effects of hospitalization during the acute phase of the disease, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, long COVID and the indirect effects of social isolation and interruption in education. In addition, we aimed to provide an update regarding the efficacy and safety of childhood mRNA COVID-19 vaccination and to instill confidence in pediatricians regarding the benefits of vaccinating children against COVID-19. We reviewed up-to-date Israeli and international epidemiological data and literature regarding COVID-19 morbidity and its sequelae in children, vaccine efficacy in reducing COVID-19-related morbidity and SARS-CoV-2 transmission and vaccine safety data. We conducted a risk–benefit analysis regarding the vaccination of children and adolescents. We concluded that vaccines are safe and effective and are recommended for all children aged 5 to 11 years to protect them from COVID-19 and its complications and to reduce community transmissions. Based on these data, after weighing the benefits of vaccination versus the harm, the Israeli Ministry of Health decided to recommend vaccination for children aged 5–11 years.

R. Cucuzza ◽  
C. Costi ◽  
M.M. Rosso ◽  
M. Domaneschi ◽  
G.C. Marano ◽  

This work focuses on the proposal and the evaluation of a new consolidation system for prestressed reinforced concrete (PRC) beams of girder bridges. The system consists of two arch-shaped steel trusses placed alongside the lateral faces of the beam to beconsolidated. The arches develop longitudinally along the entire span of the beam and in elevation using the available height of the PRC cross section. The consolidation system is characterized by its own external constraints, independent from those serving the pre-existing element. The efficiency of the system with respect to parameters variability is described also focusing on the ratio between the load discharged by the consolidation system and the total applied load. Referring to a case study, the consolidation of a PRC beam is presented adopting the proposed system with respect to the usually adopted external prestressing technique. The cross sections properties of the steel arch shaped trusses are defined by means of a structural optimization process using a genetic algorithm, identifying the minimum steel consumption. Finally, a preliminary cost-benefit analysis is performed for the proposed solution for a comparison with other commonly adopted techniques.

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