mixed model
Recently Published Documents





BMC Medicine ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Josine M. Stuber ◽  
Jeroen Lakerveld ◽  
Loes W. Kievitsbosch ◽  
Joreintje D. Mackenbach ◽  
Joline W. J. Beulens

Abstract Background Nudging is increasingly used to promote healthy food choices in supermarkets. Ordering groceries online is gaining in popularity and nudging seems efficacious there as well, but is never comprehensively tested in real-life. We evaluated the real-life effectiveness of nudging in an online supermarket on healthy food purchases. Methods We conducted a multi-arm, parallel-group, individually randomized controlled trial in an online supermarket. During 1 month, all customers were randomized to (1) control condition, (2) information nudges, (3) position nudges, and (4) information and position nudges combined. Allocation was concealed and customers were not blinded, but unaware of the intervention. Mean differences between the control condition and the intervention arms in the total percentage of healthy purchases were assessed with a linear mixed model. We tested for effect modification by area-level deprivation. Results Based on sales data from 11,775 shoppers, no overall significant effects were detected. Yet, effects were modified by area-level deprivation (pArm 2 < 0.001). Among shoppers from deprived areas, those allocated to information nudges purchased a 2.4% (95%CI 0.8, 4.0) higher percentage of healthy products compared to controls. No significant differences were observed for position (− 1.3%; 95%CI − 2.8, 0.3) and combined nudges (− 0.1%; 95%CI − 1.7, 1.5). Shoppers from non-deprived areas exposed to information nudges (− 1.6%; 95%CI − 3.2, − 0.1) and the combined nudges (− 2.1%; 95%CI − 3.6, − 0.6), but not position nudges (− 0.9%; 95%CI − 2.4, 0.7), purchased a lower percentage of healthy products. Conclusion Information nudges in an online supermarket can increase healthy product purchases, but only for those living in deprived areas. The adverse effects found on purchasing behaviors for those from non-deprived areas call for further research. Further research should also focus on real-life effects of online healthy food nudging as part of a broader nutrition intervention strategy, and on the equitability of the online nudging intervention within populations. Trial registration Retrospectively registered in the ISRCTN registry at May 21, 2021 (ISRCTN10491616).

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Holger A. Lindner ◽  
Shigehiko Schamoni ◽  
Thomas Kirschning ◽  
Corinna Worm ◽  
Bianka Hahn ◽  

Abstract Background Sepsis is the leading cause of death in the intensive care unit (ICU). Expediting its diagnosis, largely determined by clinical assessment, improves survival. Predictive and explanatory modelling of sepsis in the critically ill commonly bases both outcome definition and predictions on clinical criteria for consensus definitions of sepsis, leading to circularity. As a remedy, we collected ground truth labels for sepsis. Methods In the Ground Truth for Sepsis Questionnaire (GTSQ), senior attending physicians in the ICU documented daily their opinion on each patient’s condition regarding sepsis as a five-category working diagnosis and nine related items. Working diagnosis groups were described and compared and their SOFA-scores analyzed with a generalized linear mixed model. Agreement and discriminatory performance measures for clinical criteria of sepsis and GTSQ labels as reference class were derived. Results We analyzed 7291 questionnaires and 761 complete encounters from the first survey year. Editing rates for all items were > 90%, and responses were consistent with current understanding of critical illness pathophysiology, including sepsis pathogenesis. Interrater agreement for presence and absence of sepsis was almost perfect but only slight for suspected infection. ICU mortality was 19.5% in encounters with SIRS as the “worst” working diagnosis compared to 5.9% with sepsis and 5.9% with severe sepsis without differences in admission and maximum SOFA. Compared to sepsis, proportions of GTSQs with SIRS plus acute organ dysfunction were equal and macrocirculatory abnormalities higher (p < 0.0001). SIRS proportionally ranked above sepsis in daily assessment of illness severity (p < 0.0001). Separate analyses of neurosurgical referrals revealed similar differences. Discriminatory performance of Sepsis-1/2 and Sepsis-3 compared to GTSQ labels was similar with sensitivities around 70% and specificities 92%. Essentially no difference between the prevalence of SIRS and SOFA ≥ 2 yielded sensitivities and specificities for detecting sepsis onset close to 55% and 83%, respectively. Conclusions GTSQ labels are a valid measure of sepsis in the ICU. They reveal suspicion of infection as an unclear clinical concept and refute an illness severity hierarchy in the SIRS-sepsis-severe sepsis spectrum. Ground truth challenges the accuracy of Sepsis-1/2 and Sepsis-3 in detecting sepsis onset. It is an indispensable intermediate step towards advancing diagnosis and therapy in the ICU and, potentially, other health care settings.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Caijuan Chen ◽  
Li Li ◽  
Jie Ye

Mass media has a significant impact on public support for the government. This manuscript constructs a mixed model with official media use as the moderating variable and government trust as the intermediary variable to explore the mechanism of how unofficial media use affects system confidence, using data from a survey of the political and social attitudes of netizens (2015). The study finds that official media use weakens the negative role of unofficial media use in building system confidence, with the intermediary variable of government trust creating the necessary conditions for weakening the effect of unofficial media use. Moreover, the effect of unofficial media use on system confidence is heterogeneous. These findings remind us that it is necessary to deepen research into the micromechanisms that explain how unofficial media use reduces system confidence, a task for which cognitive theory is well suited.

2022 ◽  
Rachel Knight ◽  
Marc Patrick Bennett ◽  
Darren Lee Dunning ◽  
Alan Archer-Boyd ◽  
Sarah-Jayne Blakemore ◽  

Introduction. Decentering describes the ability to voluntarily adopt an objective self-perspective from which to notice internal, typically distressing, stressors (e.g. difficult thoughts, memories, and feelings). The reinforcement of this skill may be an active ingredient through which different psychological interventions accrue reductions in anxiety and/or depression. However, it is unclear if decentering can be selectively trained at a young age and if this might reduce psychological distress. The aim of the current trial is to address this research gap. Methods and analysis. Adolescents, recruited from partnering schools in the UK and the EU (n = 48 per group, age range = 16-19 years), will be randomised to complete of five-weeks of decentering training, or form an active control group that will take part in in light physical exercise and cognitive training. The co-primary training outcomes include a self-reported decentering inventory (i.e. the Experiences Questionnaire) and the momentary use of decentering in response to psychological stressors, using experience sampling. The secondary mental health outcomes will include self-reported inventories of depression and anxiety symptoms, as well as psychological wellbeing. The initial statistical analysis will use mixed-model analysis of variance (ANOVA) to estimate the effect of training condition on self-rated inventories across three timepoints: baseline, mid-intervention and post-intervention. Additionally, experience sampling data will be initially interrogated using hierarchical linear models. Ethics and dissemination. This study was approved by the Cambridge Psychology Research Ethics Committee, University of Cambridge (PRE.2019.109). Findings will be disseminated through typical academic routes including poster/paper presentations at (intern)-national conferences, academic institutes and through publication in peer-reviewed journals.

2022 ◽  
pp. bjophthalmol-2021-319769
Yupeng Xu ◽  
Junjie Deng ◽  
Bo Zhang ◽  
Xian Xu ◽  
Tianyu Cheng ◽  

BackgroundVision-dependent mechanisms play a role in myopia progression in childhood. Thus, we investigated the distribution of ocular and corneal higher-order aberrations (HOAs) in highly myopic Chinese children and adolescents and the relationship between HOA components and 1-year axial eye growth.MethodsBaseline cycloplegic ocular and corneal HOAs, axial length (AL), spherical equivalent (SE), astigmatism and interpupillary distance (IPD) were determined for the right eyes of 458 highly myopic (SE ≤−5.0D) subjects. HOAs were compared among baseline age groups (≤12 years, 13–15 years and 16–18 years). Ninety-nine subjects completed the 1-year follow-up. Linear mixed model analyses were applied to determine the association between HOA components, other known confounding variables (age, gender, SE, astigmatism and IPD) and axial growth. A comparison with data from an early study of moderate myopia were conducted.ResultsAlmost all ocular HOAs and few corneal HOAs exhibited significant differences between different age groups (all p<0.05). After 1 year, only ocular HOA components was significantly negative associated with a longer AL, including secondary horizontal comatic aberration (p=0.019), primary spherical aberration (p<0.001) and spherical HOA (p=0.026). Comparing with the moderate myopia data, the association of comatic aberration with AL growth was only found in high myopia.ConclusionIn highly myopic children and adolescents, lower levels of annual ocular secondary horizontal comatic aberration changes, besides spherical aberrations, were associated with axial elongation. This suggests that ocular HOA plays a potential role in refractive development in high myopia.

Congying An ◽  
Jinglan Liu ◽  
Qiaohui Liu ◽  
Yuqi Liu ◽  
Xiaoli Fan ◽  

A growing number of studies suggest that the perceived sensory dimensions (PSDs) of green space are associated with stress restoration offered by restorative environment. However, there is little known about PSDs and stress restoration as well as their relationship to forest park. To fill this gap, an on-site questionnaire survey was conducted in three forest parks in Beijing, as a result of which a total number of 432 completed responses were collected and analyzed. The mean values of PSDs were used to represent PSDs of forest park. Using independent sample t-test and ANOVA, this study analyzed the individual characteristics that affected PSDs and stress restoration. Linear mixed model was used to identify the relationship between PSDs and stress restoration of forest park, which took into account the interactions of stress level and PSDs. The results showed that: (1) the perceived degree of PSDs in forest park from strong to weak was Serene, Space, Nature, Rich in species, Prospect, Refuge, Social and Culture, which varied with visitors’ gender, age, level of stress, visit frequency, activity intensity, visit duration and commuting time; (2) in PSDs, Refuge, Serene, Social and Prospect had significantly positive effects on the stress restoration of forest parks (3) there was no significant difference in the effect of the eight PSDs on the stress restoration between different stress groups; (4) stress restoration was influenced by visitors’ gender, age, visit frequency and visit duration. These findings can offer references for managers to improve the health benefits of forest park for visitors, and can enrich the knowledge about PSDs and stress restoration.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 376
Stephanie Kirschbaum ◽  
Sarah Erhart ◽  
Carsten Perka ◽  
Robert Hube ◽  
Kathi Thiele

Background: The aim of this study was to categorize reasons for failure and to analyze the survivorship of multiple total knee arthroplasty (TKA) revisions. Methods: The study retrospectively evaluated all multiple TKA revisions performed between 2005 and 2015 at the authors’ institutions. Sixty-three patients (35 female, 28 male, age 64 ± 10 years, follow-up 55 ± 36 months) underwent a total of 157 re-revision TKA surgeries (range 2–5). The revision indications were divided up into main diagnoses. Survivorship was evaluated by mixed model analysis. Results: The main overall reason for re-revision was periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) (48%), followed by instability (12%), polyethylene wear (11%), malpositioning (8%), and aseptic loosening (8%). Survivorship shortened with an increasing number of revision surgeries (p = 0.003). While PJI was in 38% of all cases, the reason for the first revision, incidence increased constantly with the number of revisions (48% at second revision, 55% at third revision, 86% at fourth revision, and 100% at fifth revision, p = 0.022). If periprosthetic infection caused the first revision, patients showed an average of two more septic revisions at follow-up than patients with an aseptic first revision indication (p < 0.001). In 36% of cases, the reason for follow-up surgery in case of periprosthetic infection was again PJI. Conclusion: The probability of survival of the implanted knee arthroplasty is significantly reduced with each subsequent revision. Periprosthetic infection is the main cause of multiple revisions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 54 (1) ◽  
Salma Elzaki ◽  
Paula Korkuc ◽  
Danny Arends ◽  
Monika Reissmann ◽  
Siham A. Rahmatalla ◽  

AbstractThe Bos indicus zebu cattle Butana is the most commonly used indigenous dairy cattle breed in Sudan. In the last years, high-yielding Holstein dairy cattle were introgressed into Butana cattle to improve their milk yield and simultaneously keep their good adaption to extreme environmental conditions. With the focus on the improvement of milk production, other problems arose such as an increased susceptibility to mastitis. Thus, genetic selection for mastitis resistance should be considered to maintain healthy and productive cows. In this study, we tested 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which had been associated with somatic cell score (SCS) in Holstein cattle for association with SCS in 37 purebred Butana and 203 Butana × Holstein crossbred cattle from Sudan. Animals were genotyped by competitive allele-specific PCR assays and association analysis was performed using a linear mixed model. All 10 SNPs were segregating in the crossbred Butana × Holstein populations, but only 8 SNPs in Sudanese purebred Butana cattle. The SNP on chromosome 13 was suggestively associated with SCS in the Butana × Holstein crossbred population (rs109441194, 13:79,365,467, PBF = 0.054) and the SNP on chromosome 19 was significantly associated with SCS in both populations (rs41257403, 19:50,027,458, Butana: PBF = 0.003, Butana × Holstein: PBF = 6.2 × 10−16). The minor allele of both SNPs showed an increase in SCS. Therefore, selection against the disadvantageous minor allele could be used for genetic improvement of mastitis resistance in the studied populations. However, investigations in a bigger population and across the whole genome are needed to identify additional genomic loci.

eLife ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Osman Shabir ◽  
Ben Pendry ◽  
Llywelyn Lee ◽  
Beth Eyre ◽  
Paul S Sharp ◽  

Neurovascular coupling is a critical brain mechanism whereby changes to blood flow accompany localised neural activity. The breakdown of neurovascular coupling is linked to the development and progression of several neurological conditions including dementia. In this study, we examined cortical haemodynamics in mouse preparations that modelled Alzheimer’s disease (J20-AD) and atherosclerosis (PCSK9-ATH) between 9 and 12 m of age. We report novel findings with atherosclerosis where neurovascular decline is characterised by significantly reduced blood volume, altered levels of oxyhaemoglobin and deoxyhaemoglobin, in addition to global neuroinflammation. In the comorbid mixed model (J20-PCSK9-MIX), we report a 3 x increase in hippocampal amyloid-beta plaques. A key finding was that cortical spreading depression (CSD) due to electrode insertion into the brain was worse in the diseased animals and led to a prolonged period of hypoxia. These findings suggest that systemic atherosclerosis can be detrimental to neurovascular health and that having cardiovascular comorbidities can exacerbate pre-existing Alzheimer’s-related amyloid-plaques.

Janet A. Morrison ◽  
Bernadettte Roche ◽  
Maren Veatch-Blohm

Plants in suburban forests of eastern North America face the dual stressors of high white-tailed deer density and invasion by nonindigenous plants. The combination of chronic deer herbivory and strong competition from invasive plants could alter a plant’s stress- and defense-related secondary chemistry, especially for long-lived juvenile trees in the understory, but this has not been studied. We measured foliar total antioxidants, phenolics, and flavonoids in juveniles of two native trees, Fraxinus pennsylvanica (green ash) and Fagus grandifolia (American beech), growing in six forests in the suburban landscape of central New Jersey, USA. The trees grew in experimental plots that had been subject for 2.5 years to factorial treatments of deer access/exclosure X addition/no addition of the nonindigenous invasive grass Microstegium vimineum (Japanese stiltgrass). As other hypothesized drivers of plant secondary chemistry, we also measured non-stiltgrass herb layer cover, light levels, and water availability. Univariate mixed model analysis of the deer and stiltgrass effects and multivariate structural equation modeling (SEM) of all variables showed that both greater stiltgrass cover and greater deer pressure induced antioxidants, phenolics, and flavonoids, with some variation between species. Deer were generally the stronger factor, and stiltgrass effects were most apparent at high stiltgrass density. SEM also revealed that soil dryness directly increased the chemicals; deer had additional positive, but indirect, effects via influence on the soil; in beech PAR positively affected flavonoids; and herb layer cover had no effect. Juvenile trees’ chemical defense/stress responses to deer and invasive plants can be protective, but also could have a physiological cost, with negative consequences for recruitment to the canopy. Ecological implications for species and their communities will depend on costs and benefits of stress/defense chemistry in the specific environmental context, particularly with respect to invasive plant competitiveness, extent of invasion, local deer density, and deer browse preferences.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document