linear mixed model
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Maik Sahm ◽  
Clara Danzer ◽  
Alexis Leonhard Grimm ◽  
Christian Herrmann ◽  
Rene Mantke

Background and AimsPublished studies repeatedly demonstrate an advantage of three-dimensional (3D) laparoscopic surgery over two-dimensional (2D) systems but with quite heterogeneous results. This raises the question whether clinics must replace 2D technologies to ensure effective training of future surgeons.MethodsWe recruited 45 students with no experience in laparoscopic surgery and comparable characteristics in terms of vision and frequency of video game usage. The students were randomly allocated to 3D (n = 23) or 2D (n = 22) groups and performed 10 runs of a laparoscopic “peg transfer” task in the Luebeck Toolbox. A repeated-measures ANOVA for operation times and a generalized linear mixed model for error rates were calculated. The main effects of laparoscopic condition and run, as well as the interaction term between the two, were examined.ResultsNo statistically significant differences in operation times and error rates were observed between 2D and 3D groups (p = 0.10 and p = 0.72, respectively). The learning curve showed a significant reduction in operation time and error rates (both p's < 0.001). No significant interactions between group and run were detected (operation time: p = 0.342, error rates: p = 0.83). With respect to both endpoints studied, the learning curves reached their plateau at the 7th run.ConclusionThe result of our study with laparoscopic novices revealed no significant difference between 2D and 3D technology with respect to performance time and the error rate in a simple standardized test. In the future, surgeons may thus still be trained in both techniques.

BMC Medicine ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Josine M. Stuber ◽  
Jeroen Lakerveld ◽  
Loes W. Kievitsbosch ◽  
Joreintje D. Mackenbach ◽  
Joline W. J. Beulens

Abstract Background Nudging is increasingly used to promote healthy food choices in supermarkets. Ordering groceries online is gaining in popularity and nudging seems efficacious there as well, but is never comprehensively tested in real-life. We evaluated the real-life effectiveness of nudging in an online supermarket on healthy food purchases. Methods We conducted a multi-arm, parallel-group, individually randomized controlled trial in an online supermarket. During 1 month, all customers were randomized to (1) control condition, (2) information nudges, (3) position nudges, and (4) information and position nudges combined. Allocation was concealed and customers were not blinded, but unaware of the intervention. Mean differences between the control condition and the intervention arms in the total percentage of healthy purchases were assessed with a linear mixed model. We tested for effect modification by area-level deprivation. Results Based on sales data from 11,775 shoppers, no overall significant effects were detected. Yet, effects were modified by area-level deprivation (pArm 2 < 0.001). Among shoppers from deprived areas, those allocated to information nudges purchased a 2.4% (95%CI 0.8, 4.0) higher percentage of healthy products compared to controls. No significant differences were observed for position (− 1.3%; 95%CI − 2.8, 0.3) and combined nudges (− 0.1%; 95%CI − 1.7, 1.5). Shoppers from non-deprived areas exposed to information nudges (− 1.6%; 95%CI − 3.2, − 0.1) and the combined nudges (− 2.1%; 95%CI − 3.6, − 0.6), but not position nudges (− 0.9%; 95%CI − 2.4, 0.7), purchased a lower percentage of healthy products. Conclusion Information nudges in an online supermarket can increase healthy product purchases, but only for those living in deprived areas. The adverse effects found on purchasing behaviors for those from non-deprived areas call for further research. Further research should also focus on real-life effects of online healthy food nudging as part of a broader nutrition intervention strategy, and on the equitability of the online nudging intervention within populations. Trial registration Retrospectively registered in the ISRCTN registry at May 21, 2021 (ISRCTN10491616).

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Holger A. Lindner ◽  
Shigehiko Schamoni ◽  
Thomas Kirschning ◽  
Corinna Worm ◽  
Bianka Hahn ◽  

Abstract Background Sepsis is the leading cause of death in the intensive care unit (ICU). Expediting its diagnosis, largely determined by clinical assessment, improves survival. Predictive and explanatory modelling of sepsis in the critically ill commonly bases both outcome definition and predictions on clinical criteria for consensus definitions of sepsis, leading to circularity. As a remedy, we collected ground truth labels for sepsis. Methods In the Ground Truth for Sepsis Questionnaire (GTSQ), senior attending physicians in the ICU documented daily their opinion on each patient’s condition regarding sepsis as a five-category working diagnosis and nine related items. Working diagnosis groups were described and compared and their SOFA-scores analyzed with a generalized linear mixed model. Agreement and discriminatory performance measures for clinical criteria of sepsis and GTSQ labels as reference class were derived. Results We analyzed 7291 questionnaires and 761 complete encounters from the first survey year. Editing rates for all items were > 90%, and responses were consistent with current understanding of critical illness pathophysiology, including sepsis pathogenesis. Interrater agreement for presence and absence of sepsis was almost perfect but only slight for suspected infection. ICU mortality was 19.5% in encounters with SIRS as the “worst” working diagnosis compared to 5.9% with sepsis and 5.9% with severe sepsis without differences in admission and maximum SOFA. Compared to sepsis, proportions of GTSQs with SIRS plus acute organ dysfunction were equal and macrocirculatory abnormalities higher (p < 0.0001). SIRS proportionally ranked above sepsis in daily assessment of illness severity (p < 0.0001). Separate analyses of neurosurgical referrals revealed similar differences. Discriminatory performance of Sepsis-1/2 and Sepsis-3 compared to GTSQ labels was similar with sensitivities around 70% and specificities 92%. Essentially no difference between the prevalence of SIRS and SOFA ≥ 2 yielded sensitivities and specificities for detecting sepsis onset close to 55% and 83%, respectively. Conclusions GTSQ labels are a valid measure of sepsis in the ICU. They reveal suspicion of infection as an unclear clinical concept and refute an illness severity hierarchy in the SIRS-sepsis-severe sepsis spectrum. Ground truth challenges the accuracy of Sepsis-1/2 and Sepsis-3 in detecting sepsis onset. It is an indispensable intermediate step towards advancing diagnosis and therapy in the ICU and, potentially, other health care settings.

2022 ◽  
pp. bjophthalmol-2021-319769
Yupeng Xu ◽  
Junjie Deng ◽  
Bo Zhang ◽  
Xian Xu ◽  
Tianyu Cheng ◽  

BackgroundVision-dependent mechanisms play a role in myopia progression in childhood. Thus, we investigated the distribution of ocular and corneal higher-order aberrations (HOAs) in highly myopic Chinese children and adolescents and the relationship between HOA components and 1-year axial eye growth.MethodsBaseline cycloplegic ocular and corneal HOAs, axial length (AL), spherical equivalent (SE), astigmatism and interpupillary distance (IPD) were determined for the right eyes of 458 highly myopic (SE ≤−5.0D) subjects. HOAs were compared among baseline age groups (≤12 years, 13–15 years and 16–18 years). Ninety-nine subjects completed the 1-year follow-up. Linear mixed model analyses were applied to determine the association between HOA components, other known confounding variables (age, gender, SE, astigmatism and IPD) and axial growth. A comparison with data from an early study of moderate myopia were conducted.ResultsAlmost all ocular HOAs and few corneal HOAs exhibited significant differences between different age groups (all p<0.05). After 1 year, only ocular HOA components was significantly negative associated with a longer AL, including secondary horizontal comatic aberration (p=0.019), primary spherical aberration (p<0.001) and spherical HOA (p=0.026). Comparing with the moderate myopia data, the association of comatic aberration with AL growth was only found in high myopia.ConclusionIn highly myopic children and adolescents, lower levels of annual ocular secondary horizontal comatic aberration changes, besides spherical aberrations, were associated with axial elongation. This suggests that ocular HOA plays a potential role in refractive development in high myopia.

Congying An ◽  
Jinglan Liu ◽  
Qiaohui Liu ◽  
Yuqi Liu ◽  
Xiaoli Fan ◽  

A growing number of studies suggest that the perceived sensory dimensions (PSDs) of green space are associated with stress restoration offered by restorative environment. However, there is little known about PSDs and stress restoration as well as their relationship to forest park. To fill this gap, an on-site questionnaire survey was conducted in three forest parks in Beijing, as a result of which a total number of 432 completed responses were collected and analyzed. The mean values of PSDs were used to represent PSDs of forest park. Using independent sample t-test and ANOVA, this study analyzed the individual characteristics that affected PSDs and stress restoration. Linear mixed model was used to identify the relationship between PSDs and stress restoration of forest park, which took into account the interactions of stress level and PSDs. The results showed that: (1) the perceived degree of PSDs in forest park from strong to weak was Serene, Space, Nature, Rich in species, Prospect, Refuge, Social and Culture, which varied with visitors’ gender, age, level of stress, visit frequency, activity intensity, visit duration and commuting time; (2) in PSDs, Refuge, Serene, Social and Prospect had significantly positive effects on the stress restoration of forest parks (3) there was no significant difference in the effect of the eight PSDs on the stress restoration between different stress groups; (4) stress restoration was influenced by visitors’ gender, age, visit frequency and visit duration. These findings can offer references for managers to improve the health benefits of forest park for visitors, and can enrich the knowledge about PSDs and stress restoration.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Zichong Long ◽  
Lili Huang ◽  
Jiajun Lyu ◽  
Yuanqing Xia ◽  
Yiting Chen ◽  

Abstract Background Obesity among women of childbearing age has becoming an important public health concern. We aimed to describe the trends of central obesity among Chinese women of childbearing age from 2004 to 2011 and to examine its associations with nutrients intake and daily behaviors. Methods Longitudinal data were derived from the China Health and Nutrition Survey. Participants consisted of 2481 women aged 15–44 years old. WC (Waist circumference) and WHtR (Waist to height ratio) were adopted as indicators of central obesity. Generalized linear mixed model was performed to analyze the associations of nutrients intake and daily behaviors with central obesity. Results From 2004 to 2011, the prevalence of central obesity among Chinese women of childbearing age increased from 21.6 to 30.7% (WC as indice) or from 22.8 to 32.6% (WHtR as indice) (both p < 0.001). Protein intake above the AMDR (Acceptable macronutrient distribution range) (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.05–1.39, p < 0.01) and non-participation in LTPA (Leisure time physical activity) (OR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.17–1.80, p < 0.001) were risk factors for high WC, and the latter was also associated with high WHtR (OR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.10–1.67, p < 0.01). For those women who had high WC & high WHtR, the impacts of protein intake and LTPA became stronger, especial LTPA (OR = 1.53, 95% CI 1.21–1.94, p < 0.001). Age-stratified analyses found that non-participation in LTPA was key factor for central obesity in 15–34 age group, while protein intake above the AMDR was pronounced in the 35–44 age group. Conclusions Non-participation in LTPA and protein intake above the AMDR were significant contributors of central obesity, which could be intervention targets to deal with the growing trend of central obesity among women of childbearing age.

2022 ◽  
Vol 54 (1) ◽  
Salma Elzaki ◽  
Paula Korkuc ◽  
Danny Arends ◽  
Monika Reissmann ◽  
Siham A. Rahmatalla ◽  

AbstractThe Bos indicus zebu cattle Butana is the most commonly used indigenous dairy cattle breed in Sudan. In the last years, high-yielding Holstein dairy cattle were introgressed into Butana cattle to improve their milk yield and simultaneously keep their good adaption to extreme environmental conditions. With the focus on the improvement of milk production, other problems arose such as an increased susceptibility to mastitis. Thus, genetic selection for mastitis resistance should be considered to maintain healthy and productive cows. In this study, we tested 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which had been associated with somatic cell score (SCS) in Holstein cattle for association with SCS in 37 purebred Butana and 203 Butana × Holstein crossbred cattle from Sudan. Animals were genotyped by competitive allele-specific PCR assays and association analysis was performed using a linear mixed model. All 10 SNPs were segregating in the crossbred Butana × Holstein populations, but only 8 SNPs in Sudanese purebred Butana cattle. The SNP on chromosome 13 was suggestively associated with SCS in the Butana × Holstein crossbred population (rs109441194, 13:79,365,467, PBF = 0.054) and the SNP on chromosome 19 was significantly associated with SCS in both populations (rs41257403, 19:50,027,458, Butana: PBF = 0.003, Butana × Holstein: PBF = 6.2 × 10−16). The minor allele of both SNPs showed an increase in SCS. Therefore, selection against the disadvantageous minor allele could be used for genetic improvement of mastitis resistance in the studied populations. However, investigations in a bigger population and across the whole genome are needed to identify additional genomic loci.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
R. Bhome ◽  
A. Zarkali ◽  
G. E. C. Thomas ◽  
J. E. Iglesias ◽  
J. H. Cole ◽  

AbstractDepression is a common non-motor feature of Parkinson’s disease (PD) which confers significant morbidity and is challenging to treat. The thalamus is a key component in the basal ganglia-thalamocortical network critical to the pathogenesis of PD and depression but the precise thalamic subnuclei involved in PD depression have not been identified. We performed structural and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) on 76 participants with PD to evaluate the relationship between PD depression and grey and white matter thalamic subnuclear changes. We used a thalamic segmentation method to divide the thalamus into its 50 constituent subnuclei (25 each hemisphere). Fixel-based analysis was used to calculate mean fibre cross-section (FC) for white matter tracts connected to each subnucleus. We assessed volume and FC at baseline and 14–20 months follow-up. A generalised linear mixed model was used to evaluate the relationship between depression, subnuclei volume and mean FC for each thalamic subnucleus. We found that depression scores in PD were associated with lower right pulvinar anterior (PuA) subnucleus volume. Antidepressant use was associated with higher right PuA volume suggesting a possible protective effect of treatment. After follow-up, depression scores were associated with reduced white matter tract macrostructure across almost all tracts connected to thalamic subnuclei. In conclusion, our work implicates the right PuA as a relevant neural structure in PD depression and future work should evaluate its potential as a therapeutic target for PD depression.

Markus J Haapanen ◽  
Juulia Jylhävä ◽  
Lauri Kortelainen ◽  
Tuija M Mikkola ◽  
Minna Salonen ◽  

Abstract Background Early life exposures have been associated with the risk of frailty in old age. We investigated whether early life exposures predict the level and rate of change in a frailty index (FI) from midlife into old age. Methods A linear mixed model analysis was performed using data from three measurement occasions over 17 years in participants from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (n=2000) aged 57-84 years. A 41-item FI was calculated on each occasion. Information on birth size, maternal body mass index (BMI), growth in infancy and childhood, childhood socioeconomic status (SES), and early life stress (wartime separation from both parents), was obtained from registers and healthcare records. Results At age 57 years the mean FI level was 0.186 and the FI levels increased by 0.34 percent/year from midlife into old age. Larger body size at birth associated with a slower increase in FI levels from midlife into old age. Per 1kg greater birth weight the increase in FI levels per year was -0.087 percentage points slower (95% CI=-0.163, -0.011; p=0.026). Higher maternal BMI was associated with a higher offspring FI level in midlife and a slower increase in FI levels into old age. Larger size, faster growth from infancy to childhood, and low SES in childhood were all associated with a lower FI level in midlife but not with its rate of change. Conclusions Early life factors seem to contribute to disparities in frailty from midlife into old age. Early life factors may identify groups that could benefit from frailty prevention, optimally initiated early in life.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Verena Dudek ◽  
Oliver Razum ◽  
Odile Sauzet

Abstract Background Accommodation for asylum seekers and refugees (ASR) in Germany differs in many ways depending on a range of political, structural, social, and environmental factors. These contextual differences present a challenge for assessing health impacts of refugee accommodation. We aimed to devise a broad typology of refugee accommodation that allows to assess associations between housing and health of ASR. Methods We performed a cluster analysis of population-based, cross-sectional secondary data in Germany to identify clusters of refugee accommodation. We then assessed health disparities across clusters by performing bivariate analysis and linear mixed model regression analysis. Results We identified four clusters, three of them reflected different types of private accommodation and one pointed to collective accommodation. The collective accommodation cluster clearly differed from the private accommodation clusters in terms of space, area, level of restrictions, social connections and respondent satisfaction. Across private accommodation clusters we also found differences in space, area, and level of restrictions. In regression analysis, belonging to one of the private accommodation cluster was significantly associated with better mental health compared to belonging to the collective accommodation cluster. Physical health was significantly lower in one private accommodation cluster characterized by poor access to public transport and a higher level of restrictions compared to a private accommodation cluster showing better connections and a lower level of restrictions. Conclusion We demonstrate that unfavourable conditions cluster in collective accommodation with negative outcomes for mental health but not for physical health. We also found health disparities across types of private accommodation. We conclude that housing plays a role in the production of health inequalities in ASR but needs to be assessed in a differentiated, multidimensional way.

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