Eye Tracking
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Emotion ◽  
2021 ◽  
Jakob Fink-Lamotte ◽  
Frederike Svensson ◽  
Julian Schmitz ◽  
Cornelia Exner

Sunny Zhenzhen Nong ◽  
Lawrence Hoc Nang Fong

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (3) ◽  
pp. 146-148
Scott Goldstein

A Review of: Schultheiß, S., & Lewandowski, D. (2021). How users’ knowledge of advertisements influences their viewing and selection behavior in search engines. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 72(3), 285–301. https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.24410 Abstract Objective – To examine how users’ understanding of ads on search engine results pages (SERPs) influences their viewing and selection behaviour on computers and smartphones. Design – Mixed methods approach consisting of pre-study interview, eye-tracking experiment, and post-study questionnaire. Setting – Usability lab at a university in Germany. Subjects – 50 students enrolled at the Hamburg University of Applied Sciences and 50 non-students recruited in Hamburg. Methods – After giving informed consent and receiving payment, participants provided information on demographics as well as how they use search engines as part of a pre-study interview. For the eye-tracking experiment, each participant completed 10 tasks each on a desktop computer and smartphone. Both the device condition order and task order were randomized. Tasks were broken down into five informational tasks (e.g., how do I build a desktop computer?), three transactional tasks (e.g., how would I go about buying a refrigerator?), and two navigational tasks (e.g., I need to go to the Apple website). The software displayed clickable screenshots of SERPs, and all clicks were recorded. iMotions eye-tracking software recorded eye fixations on areas of the page featuring organic search results and paid ads. A post-experiment questionnaire asked participants about Google’s business model and probed them about the extent to which they were able to differentiate between organic results and ads. Answers to the questionnaire were weighted and normalized to form a 0–100 scale. Main Results – The first set of research hypotheses examining the correlation between participants’ knowledge of ads and viewing and clicking behaviour was partially confirmed. There was no significant correlation between participants’ questionnaire score and visual fixations on ads, but there was a significant negative correlation between questionnaire score and the number of clicks on ads. Users with questionnaire scores in the bottom quartile paid significantly less attention to organic results than those in the top quartile, but users in the top quartile still fixated on ads and did so comparably to users in the bottom quartile. The second set of research hypotheses examining the relationship between viewing and clicking behaviour and device (desktop versus mobile) was also partially confirmed. Users on a smartphone had significantly higher fixation rates on ads than users on a desktop computer, although click rates on ads did not differ significantly between the two conditions. Conclusion – Knowledge about ads on SERPs influences selection behaviour. Users with a low level of knowledge on search advertising are more likely to click on ads than those with a high level of knowledge. Users on smartphones are also more likely to pay visual attention to ads, probably because the smaller screen size narrows content “above the fold.”

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Terje Falck-Ytter ◽  
Linnea Hamrefors ◽  
Monica Siqueiros Sanches ◽  
Ana Maria Portugal ◽  
Mark Taylor ◽  

Abstract Twin studies can help us understand the relative contributions of genes and environment to phenotypic trait variation, including attentional and brain activation measures. In terms of applying methodologies such as electroencephalography (EEG) and eye tracking, which are key methods in developmental neuroscience, infant twin studies are almost nonexistent. Here, we describe the Babytwins Study Sweden (BATSS), a multi-method longitudinal twin study of 177 MZ and 134 DZ twin pairs (i.e., 622 individual infants) covering the 5−36 month time period. The study includes EEG, eye tracking and genetics, together with more traditional measures based on in-person testing, direct observation and questionnaires. The results show that interest in participation in research among twin parents is high, despite the comprehensive protocol. DNA analysis from saliva samples was possible in virtually all participants, allowing for both zygosity confirmation and polygenic score analyses. Combining a longitudinal twin design with advanced technologies in developmental cognitive neuroscience and genomics, BATSS represents a new approach in infancy research, which we hope to have impact across multiple disciplines in the coming years.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Minah Kim ◽  
Woncheol Shin ◽  
Tak Hyung Lee ◽  
Taekwan Kim ◽  
Wu Jeong Hwang ◽  

AbstractThe symptoms of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) are largely related to impaired executive functioning due to frontostriatal dysfunction. To better treat OCD, the development of biomarkers to bridge the gap between the symptomatic-cognitive phenotype and brain abnormalities is warranted. Therefore, we aimed to identify biomarkers of impaired organizational strategies during visual encoding processes in OCD patients by developing an eye tracking-based Rey–Osterrieth complex figure test (RCFT). In 104 OCD patients and 114 healthy controls (HCs), eye movements were recorded during memorization of the RCFT figure, and organizational scores were evaluated. Kullback–Leibler divergence (KLD) scores were calculated to evaluate the distance between a participant’s eye gaze distribution and a hypothetical uniform distribution within the RCFT figure. Narrower gaze distributions within the RCFT figure, which yielded higher KLD scores, indicated that the participant was more obsessed with detail and had less organizational strategy. The OCD patients showed lower organizational scores than the HCs. Although no group differences in KLD scores were noted, KLD scores were significantly associated with organization T scores in the OCD group. The current study findings suggest that eye tracking biomarkers of visual memory encoding provide a rapidly determined index of executive functioning, such as organizational strategies, in OCD patients.

Vision ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (3) ◽  
pp. 41
Fabricio Batista Narcizo ◽  
Fernando Eustáquio Dantas dos Santos ◽  
Dan Witzner Hansen

This study investigates the influence of the eye-camera location associated with the accuracy and precision of interpolation-based eye-tracking methods. Several factors can negatively influence gaze estimation methods when building a commercial or off-the-shelf eye tracker device, including the eye-camera location in uncalibrated setups. Our experiments show that the eye-camera location combined with the non-coplanarity of the eye plane deforms the eye feature distribution when the eye-camera is far from the eye’s optical axis. This paper proposes geometric transformation methods to reshape the eye feature distribution based on the virtual alignment of the eye-camera in the center of the eye’s optical axis. The data analysis uses eye-tracking data from a simulated environment and an experiment with 83 volunteer participants (55 males and 28 females). We evaluate the improvements achieved with the proposed methods using Gaussian analysis, which defines a range for high-accuracy gaze estimation between −0.5∘ and 0.5∘. Compared to traditional polynomial-based and homography-based gaze estimation methods, the proposed methods increase the number of gaze estimations in the high-accuracy range.

2021 ◽  
Vol 132 ◽  
pp. 103951
Matthew Sears ◽  
Omar Alruwaythi ◽  
Paul Goodrum

2021 ◽  
Kritika Nayar ◽  
Frederick Shic ◽  
Molly Winston ◽  
Molly Losh

Abstract Background: Social attention differences, expressed through gaze patterns, have been documented in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with subtle differences also reported among first-degree relatives, suggesting a shared genetic link. Findings have mostly been derived from standard eye-tracking methods (total fixation count or total fixation duration). Given the dynamics of visual attention, these standard methods may obscure subtle, yet core, differences in visual attention mechanisms, particularly those presenting sub-clinically. This study applied a constellation of eye-tracking analyses to gaze data from individuals with ASD and their parents. Methods: This study included n=156 participants across groups, including ASD (n=24) and control (n=32) groups, and parents of individuals with ASD (n=61) and control parents (n=39). A complex scene with social/non-social elements was displayed and gaze tracked via an eye tracker. Eleven analytic methods from the following categories were analyzed: 1) standard variables, 2) temporal dynamics (e.g., gaze over time), 3) fixation patterns (e.g., perseverative or regressive fixations), 4) first fixations, and 5) distribution patterns. MANOVAs, growth curve analyses, and Chi-squared tests were applied to examine group differences. Finally, group differences were examined on factor scores derived from a principal component analysis (PCA) that reduced variables to distinct dimensions.Results: No group differences emerged among standard, first fixation, and distribution pattern variables. Both the ASD and ASD parent groups demonstrated reduced social attention over time and atypical perseverative fixations. Lower social attention factor scores derived from PCA strongly differentiated the ASD and ASD parent groups from controls, with parent findings driven by the subset of parents demonstrating the broad autism phenotype.Limitations: To generalize these findings, larger sample sizes, extended viewing contexts (e.g., dynamic stimuli), and even more eye-tracking analytical methods are needed. Conclusions: Fixations over time and perseverative fixations differentiated ASD and the ASD parent groups from controls, with the PCA most robustly capturing social attention differences. Findings highlight their methodological utility in studies of the (broad) autism spectrum to capture nuanced visual attention differences that may relate to clinical symptoms in ASD, and reflect genetic liability in clinically unaffected relatives. This proof-of-concept study may inform future studies using eye tracking across populations where social attention is impacted.

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