eye tracking
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Cognition ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 221 ◽  
pp. 104991
Arianna Felisatti ◽  
Mariagrazia Ranzini ◽  
Elvio Blini ◽  
Matteo Lisi ◽  
Marco Zorzi

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-33
Philipp Kather ◽  
Rodrigo Duran ◽  
Jan Vahrenhold

Previous studies on writing and understanding programs presented evidence that programmers beyond a novice stage utilize plans or plan-like structures. Other studies on code composition showed that learners have difficulties with writing, reading, and debugging code where interacting plans are merged into a short piece of code. In this article, we focus on the question of how different code-composition strategies and the familiarity with code affect program comprehension on a more abstract, i.e., algorithmic level. Using an eye-tracking setup, we explored how advanced students comprehend programs and their underlying algorithms written in either a merged or abutted (sequenced) composition of code blocks of varying familiarity. The effects of familiarity and code composition were studied both isolated and in combination. Our analysis of the quantitative data adds to our understanding of the behavior reported in previous studies and the effects of plans and their composition on the programs’ difficulty. Using this data along with retrospective interviews, we analyze students’ reading patterns and provide support that subjects were able to form mental models of program execution during task performance. Furthermore, our results suggest that subjects are able to retrieve and create schemata when the program is composed of familiar templates, which may improve their performance; we found indicators for a higher element-interactivity for programs with a merged code composition compared to abutted code composition.

2022 ◽  
Vol 122 ◽  
pp. 104298
Ruth E. Corps ◽  
Charlotte Brooke ◽  
Martin J. Pickering

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Fang Liu ◽  
Jing Zhao ◽  
Tian Han ◽  
Yang Shen ◽  
Meng Li ◽  

Purpose:To explore the feasibility and repeatability of a novel glasses-free display combined with random-dot stimulus and eye-tracking technology for screening stereopsis in adults.Methods:A total of 74 patients aged 18–44 years were recruited in this study (male: female, 32:42), including 33 patients with high myopia [≤ -6.0 diopters (D)] and 41 patients with moderate-to-low myopia (>-6.0 D). Stereopsis was measured using glasses-free, polarized, and Titmus stereotests. All patients completed a visual fatigue questionnaire after the polarized stereotest and glasses-free test. Kendall's W and Cohen's Kappa tests were used to evaluate repeatability and consistency of the glasses-free stereotest.Results:The stereotest results using the glasses-free monitor showed strong repeatability in the three consecutive tests (W = 0.968, P < 0.01) and good consistency with the polarized stereotest and Titmus test results (vs. polarization: Kappa = 0.910, P < 0.001; vs. Titmus: Kappa = 0.493, P < 0.001). Stereopsis levels of the high myopia group were significantly poorer than those of the moderate-to-low myopia group in three stereotest monitors (all P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in visual fatigue level between the polarized and the glasses-free display test (P = 0.72). Compared with the polarized test, 56.76% of patients preferred the glasses-free display and found it more comfortable, 20.27% reported both tests to be acceptable.Conclusions:In our adult patients, the new eye-tracking glasses-free display system feasibly screened stereopsis with good repeatability, consistency, and patient acceptance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 115
Claire Boutoleau-Bretonnière ◽  
Estelle Lamy ◽  
Mohamad El Haj

Recent research has assessed pupil size during past thinking in patients with retrograde amnesia. Building on this research, we assessed pupil size during future thinking in a retrograde amnesia patient. To this end, we measured pupil size during past and future thinking in L, a 19-year-old, right-handed man free of neurological/psychiatric disorders except for retrograde amnesia that occurred after an episode of fugue. During a past thinking condition, we invited L to retrieve retrograde events (i.e., events that occurred before amnesia) and anterograde events (i.e., events that occurred after amnesia). During a future thinking condition, we invited him to imagine events that might occur the following week, the following month, and in the new year. Past and future thinking occurred while L’s pupil size was monitored with eye-tracking glasses. L demonstrated higher specificity during future than during past thinking. Critically, the results demonstrated a larger pupil size during future than during past thinking. The larger pupil size during future thinking observed in L can be attributed to the high cognitive load involved in future thinking. Our study not only demonstrates preserved future thinking in a patient with dissociative retrograde amnesia, but also shows that pupillometry can be used for the physiological assessment of future thinking in retrograde amnesia patients.

2022 ◽  
Ivan Bouchardet da Fonseca Grebot ◽  
Pedro Henrique Pinheiro Cintra ◽  
Emilly Fátima Ferreira de Lima ◽  
Michella Vaz de Castro ◽  
Rui de Moraes

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Fatima Isiaka ◽  
Zainab Adamu ◽  
Muhammad A. Adamu

The paper seeks to demonstrates the likelihood of embedding a 3D gaze point on a 3D visual field, the visual field is inform of a game console where the user has to play from one level to the other by overcoming obstacles that will lead them to the next level. Complex game interface is sometimes difficult for the player to progress to next level of the game and the developers also find it difficult to regulate the game for an average player. The model serves as an analytical tool for game adaptations and also players can track their response to the game. Custom eye tracking and 3D object tracking algorithms were developed to enhance the analysis of the procedure. This is a part of the contributions to user interface design in the aspect of visual transparency. The development and testing of human computer interaction uses and application is more easily investigated than ever, part of the contribution to this is the embedding of 3-D gaze point on a 3-D visual field. This could be used in a number of applications, for instance in medical applications that includes long and short sightedness diagnosis and treatment. Experiments and Test were conducted on five different episodes of user attributes, result show that fixation points and pupil changes are the two most likely user attributes that contributes most significantly in the performance of the custom eye tracking algorithm the study. As the advancement in development of eye movement algorithm continues user attributes that showed the least likely appearance will prove to be redundant.

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