shielding properties
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Abstract The FISPACT-II code is used to compute the levels of activation and transmutation of tungsten borides for shielding the central High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) core of a spherical tokamak fusion power plant during operations at 200 MW fusion power for 30 years and after shutting down for 10 years. The materials considered were W2B, WB, W2B5 and WB4 along with a sintered borocarbide B0.329C0.074Cr0.024Fe0.274W0.299, monolithic W and WC. Calculations were made within shields composed of each material, for five reactor major radii from 1400 to 2200 mm, and for six 10B isotope concentrations and at five positions across the shield. The isotopic production and decay in each shield is detailed. The activation of boride materials is lower than for either W or WC and is lowest of all for W2B5. While isotopes from tungsten largely decay within 3 years of shut-down, those from boron have a much longer decay life. An acceptable 70% of the absorbing 10B isotope will remain after 30 years of operations behind the first wall for a 1400 mm radius tokamak. Gaseous production is problematic in boride shields, where 4He in particular is produced in quantities 3 orders of magnitude higher than in W or WC shields. The FISPACT-II displacements per atom (dpa) tend to increase with boron content, although they decrease with increased 10B isotopic content. The dpa ranges of boride shields tend to lie between those of W and WC. Overall, the results confirm that the favourable fusion reaction shielding properties of W2B5 are not seriously challenged by its irradiation and transmutation properties, although helium gas production could be a challenge to its thermal and mechanical properties.

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