acrylic acid
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2022 ◽  

Abstract The article presents the results of the synthesis and study of the structure of metal-polymer complexes p-EGM: АА/Ag, p-EGM: АА/Ni, p-EGM:АА/Ag-Ni, p-PGM:АА/Ag, p-PGM:АА/Ni, p-PGM:АА/Ag-Ni based on copolymers of polyethylene(propylene)glycolmaleates with acrylic acid and metals, which have been characterized using microscopy, spectroscopy and thermogravimetry. The antimicrobial activity of a new metal-polymer nanocomposite p-PGM/АА-Ag was studied, which is showing high efficiency against standard strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus.

2022 ◽  
Tamara Erceg ◽  
Gaja Brakus ◽  
Alena Stupar ◽  
Miroslav Cvetinov ◽  
Miroslav Hadnađev ◽  

Abstract The paper presents the synthesis of hydrogels via free-radical polymerization, based on Chitosan (CS) grafted with Acrylic acid (AA), using a two-step procedure. Free-radical polymerization has given strong hydrogels with compact structure, dominant elastic behavior and long linear viscoelastic region. The results of rheological studies have shown that obtained hydrogels have significantly improved mechanical properties in comparison to chitosan hydrogels obtained by other sustainable methods. A step forward in the investigation of the potential application of chitosan hydrogels in wound dressing systems has been made by preparation of the bilayer design by embedding a layer of active compound-loaded alginate beads into the contact surface between two conjoined units of CS/AA hydrogels. Wild garlic (Allium ursinum L.) dried extract was used as an active compound because of its antimicrobial activity and green properties. This system has demonstrated pH-dependent release of extract and higher shear elastic modulus values than ordinary disc gels. A conducted study has given preliminary results for the possible application of bilayer chitosan - based hydrogels in wound dressing systems and represents the first step towards extrapolating the proposed design across other application fields.

Khalid A. Rabaeh ◽  
Issra’ M. E. Hammoudeh ◽  
Belal Moftah ◽  
Ammar A. Oglat ◽  
Molham M. Eyadeh ◽  

Gels ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 47
Munir Ahmad Khan ◽  
Abul Kalam Azad ◽  
Muhammad Safdar ◽  
Asif Nawaz ◽  
Muhammad Akhlaq ◽  

This project aims to synthesize and characterize the pH-sensitive controlled release of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) loaded hydrogels (5-FULH) by polymerization of acrylamide (AM) and acrylic acid (AA) in the presence of glutaraldehyde (GA) as a crosslinker with ammonium persulphate as an initiator. The formulation’s code is named according to acrylamide (A1, A2, A3), acrylic acid (B1, B2, B3) and glutaraldehyde (C1, C2, C3). The optimized formulations were exposed to various physicochemical tests, namely swelling, diffusion, porosity, sol gel analysis, and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR). These 5-FULH were subjected to kinetic models for drug release data. The 5-FU were shown to be soluble in distilled water and phosphate buffer media at pH 7.4, and sparingly soluble in an acidic media at pH 1.2. The ATR-FTIR data confirmed that the 5-FU have no interaction with other ingredients. The lowest dynamic (0.98 ± 0.04% to 1.90 ± 0.03%; 1.65 ± 0.01% to 6.88 ± 0.03%) and equilibrium swelling (1.85 ± 0.01% to 6.68 ± 0.03%; 10.12 ± 0.02% to 27.89 ± 0.03%) of formulations was observed at pH 1.2, whereas the higher dynamic (4.33 ± 0.04% to 10.21 ± 0.01%) and equilibrium swelling (22.25 ± 0.03% to 55.48 ± 0.04%) was recorded at pH 7.4. These findings clearly indicated that the synthesized 5-FULH have potential swelling characteristics in pH 6.8 that will enhance the drug’s release in the same pH medium. The porosity values of formulated 5-FULH range from 34% to 62% with different weight ratios of AM, AA, and GA. The gel fractions data showed variations ranging from 74 ± 0.4% (A1) to 94 ± 0.2% (B3). However, formulation A1 reported the highest 24 ± 0.1% and B3 the lowest 09 ± 0.3% sol fractions rate among the formulations. Around 20% drug release from the 5-FULH was found at 1 h in an acidic media (pH1.2), whereas >65% of drug release (pH7.4) was observed at around 25 h. These findings concluded that GA crosslinked 5-FU loaded AM and AA based hydrogels would be a potential pH-sensitive oral controlled colon drug delivery carrier.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 469
Tannaz Soltanolzakerin Sorkhabi ◽  
Mehrab Fallahi Samberan ◽  
Krzysztof Adam Ostrowski ◽  
Tomasz M. Majka

The effect of SiO2 nanoparticles on the formation of PAA (poly acrylic acid) gel structure was investigated with seeded emulsion polymerization method used to prepare SiO2/PAA nanoparticles. The morphologies of the nanocomposite nanoparticles were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results indicated that the PAA was chemically bonded to the surface of the SiO2 nanoparticles. Additionally, the resulting morphology of the nanocomposite nanoparticles confirmed the co-crosslinking role of the SiO2 nanoparticles in the formation of the 3D structure and hydrogel of PAA. SiO2/PAA nanocomposite hydrogels were synthesized by in situ solution polymerization with and without toluene. The morphology studies by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) showed that when the toluene was used as a pore forming agent in the polymerization process, a macroporous hydrogel structure was achieved. The pH-sensitive swelling behaviors of the nanocomposite hydrogels showed that the formation of pores in the gels structure was a dominant factor on the water absorption capacity. In the current research the absorption capacity was changed from about 500 to 4000 g water/g dry hydrogel. Finally, the macroporous nanocomposite hydrogel sample was tested as an amoxicillin release system in buffer solutions with pHs of 3, 7.2, and 9 at 37 °C. The results showed that the percentage cumulative release of amoxicillin from the hydrogels was higher in neutral and basic mediums than in the acidic medium and the amoxicillin release rate was decreased with increasing pH. Additionally, the release results were very similar to swelling results and hence amoxicillin release was a swelling controlled-release system.

2022 ◽  
pp. 52091
Giorgio Marques Milani ◽  
Isabela Trindade Coutinho ◽  
Felipe Nogueira Ambrosio ◽  
Mônica Helena Monteiro do Nascimento ◽  
Christiane Bertachini Lombello ◽  

Fermentation ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 21
Oseweuba Valentine Okoro ◽  
Lei Nie ◽  
Houman Alimoradi ◽  
Amin Shavandi

The global demand for acrylic acid (AA) is increasing due to its wide range of applications. Due to this growing demand, alternative AA production strategies must be explored to avoid the exacerbation of prevailing climate and global warming issues since current AA production strategies involve fossil resources. Investigations regarding alternative strategies for AA production therefore constitute an important research interest. The present study assesses waste apple pomace (WAP) as a feedstock for sustainable AA production. To undertake this assessment, process models based on two production pathways were designed, modelled and simulated in ASPEN plus® software. The two competing production pathways investigated included a process incorporating WAP conversion to lactic acid (LA) prior to LA dehydration to generate AA (denoted as the fermentation–dehydration, i.e., FD, pathway) and another process involving WAP conversion to propylene prior to propylene oxidation to generate AA (denoted as the thermochemical–fermentation–oxidation, i.e., TFO, pathway). Economic performance and potential environmental impact of the FD and TFO pathways were assessed using the metrics of minimum selling price (MSP) and potential environmental impacts per h (PEI/h). The study showed that the FD pathway presented an improved economic performance (MSP of AA: USD 1.17 per kg) compared to the economic performance (MSP of AA: USD 1.56 per kg) of the TFO pathway. Crucially, the TFO process was determined to present an improved environmental performance (2.07 kPEI/h) compared to the environmental performance of the FD process (8.72 kPEI/h). These observations suggested that the selection of the preferred AA production pathway or process will require a tradeoff between economic and environmental performance measures via the integration of a multicriteria decision assessment in future work.

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