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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 964-970
Author(s):  
Tao Liu ◽  
Xiang Wen ◽  
Qi-Jun Zhao ◽  
Ying Bai ◽  
Qing-Gang Tian

The paclitaxel is a common-used chemotherapy drug and its combination with nano albumin reduces drug side effect. However, whether nab-paclitaxel affects drug resistance of breast cancer remains unclear. This study intends to discuss the mechanism of drug resistance induced by nab-paclitaxel. The drug resistance of MCF-7/nab-paclitaxel in MCF-7 cell and cell proliferation was detected by MTT along with analysis of ABCB1 expression, cell cycle, and apoptosis. There was stronger drug resistance of nab-paclitaxel in the MCF-7/nab-paclitaxel cell group through be adopted with different concentration of nab-paclitaxel at the 0th hour, 24th hour and 48th hour. There was remarkable abnormal expression of the ABCB1 in the MCF-7/nab-paclitaxel cell group. The si-ABCB1 could release the quantity of the MCF-7/nab-paclitaxel cell blocked at S period. And the si-ABCB1 could reduce the expression of cyclin D1 and CDK2 in the MCF-7/nab-paclitaxel cell notably. But the expression level of p21 was increased when there was high concentration of si-ABCB1. The si-ABCB1 could increase the quantity of the MCF-7/nab-paclitaxel cell at the later period of cell apoptosis notably. The rat’s tumor growth was delayed obviously at the MCF-7/nabpaclitaxel cell group treated by si-ABCB1. But the inhibiting effect of the MCF-7/nab-paclitaxel cell on tumor growth was less. There was stronger drug resistance of cell for the nano albumin combined with paclitaxel. The function of cell proliferation in breast cancer was restrained by the nano albumin combined with paclitaxel mainly through inducing the expression of ABCB1, adjusting the growth of cell cycle and the expression of P21/BCL-2 protein.


Author(s):  
Marcela Brito ◽  
◽  
Ana Maturana ◽  
Ivan Montenegro ◽  
Bastian Said ◽  
...  

The genus Fuchsia is generally used in herbal preparations to treat conditions caused by microorganisms. Based on the popular use of this type of plants, the objective of this study was to obtain sequential extracts of increasing polarity from the branches of Fuchsia lycioides by maceration at room temperature and by the Soxhlet method at 60ºC, to later evaluate the antifungal capacity of the extracts against different clinical isolates of the Candida genus. The ethyl acetate extract exhibited strong anti-fungal activity, selectively inhibiting C. albicans strains with MIC and CMF values of 10 and 15 µg/mL, respectively; comparable with the drug itraconazole®. The analysis of the extract by GC-MS showed a high concentration of terpenoids (mainly phytol) and phenylpropanoids (mainly cinnamic acid), possibly responsible for the antifungal activity of the ethyl acetate extract of F. lycioides.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Huifang Xu ◽  
Kuang-Sheng Hong ◽  
Meiye Wu ◽  
Seungyeol Lee

ABSTRACT A high concentration of hydrogen gas occurs in fracture zones of active faults that are associated with historical earthquakes. To explain the described phenomenon, we propose the piezoelectrochemical (PZEC) effect as a mechanism for the direct conversion of mechanical energy to chemical energy. When applied to natural piezoelectric crystals including quartz and serpentine, hydrogen and oxygen are generated via direct water decomposition. Laboratory experiments show H2 gas is generated from strained piezoelectric material due to the extremely low solubility of H2, suggesting that the deformed or strained mineral surfaces can catalyze water decomposition. If the strain-induced H2 production is significant, hydrogen measurements at monitoring sites can offer information on deformation of rocks operating at depth prior to earthquakes. Oxygen can be measured in water due to its high solubility compared to hydrogen. Our experimental results demonstrate that dissolved oxygen generated from the PZEC effect can oxidize dissolved organic dye and ferrous iron in an aqueous Fe(II)–silicate metal complex. The hydrogen and oxygen formed through stoichiometric decomposition of water in the presence of strained or deformed minerals in fault zones (including subduction zones and transform faults) may be referred to as tectonic hydrogen and tectonic oxygen. Tectonic hydrogen could be a potential energy source for deep subsurface and glacier-bedrock interface microbial communities that rely on molecular hydrogen for metabolism. Tectonic oxygen may have been an important oxidizing agent when dissolved in water during times in early Earth history when atmospheric oxygen levels were extremely low. Reported “whiffs” of dissolved oxygen before the Great Oxidation Event might have been related to tectonic activity.


Author(s):  
Nargiza Bekbutaeva ◽  
◽  
◽  

results of studies of the forms of finding and methods of extracting molybdenum from acidic solutions with a high concentration of sulfuric acid are presented. Ion-exchange resins of various modifications were tested to determine the most effective for molybdenum during its sorption from a sulfuric acid solution.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xuanwen Li ◽  
Fengqiang Wang ◽  
Hong Li ◽  
Douglas D Richardson ◽  
David J Roush

Abstract Non-ionic surfactant polysorbates (PS), including PS-80 and PS-20, are commonly used in the formulation of biotherapeutic products for both preventing surface adsorption and acting as stabilizer against protein aggregation. Trace levels of residual host cell proteins (HCPs) with lipase or esterase enzymatic activity have been shown to degrade polysorbates in biologics formulation. The measurement and control of these low-abundance, high-risk HCPs for polysorbate degradation is an industry-wide challenge to achieve desired shelf-life of biopharmaceuticals in liquid formulation, especially for high-concentration formulation product development. Here, we reviewed the challenges, recent advances and future opportunities of analytical method development, risk assessment and control strategies for polysorbate degradation during formulation development with a focus on enzymatic degradation. Continued efforts to advance our understanding of polysorbate degradation in biologics formulation will help develop high-quality medicines for patients.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ali Solhpour ◽  
Ardeshir Tajbakhsh ◽  
Saeid Safari ◽  
Maryam Movaffaghi ◽  
Mohamad Amin Pourhoseingholi ◽  
...  

Abstract Background During general anesthesia especially when the nurse or anesthesiologist forgets to change manual to controlled mode after successful endotracheal intubation, capnography shows End-tidal Co2 above 20 mmHg after checking the place of the tracheal tube and will remain on the screen permanently. In this scenario, the patient receives a high concentration of oxygen, and Spo2 (oxygen saturation) does not drop for a long time which is too late to intervene. It has been all-time questionable which one of the cardiac dysrhythmias or Spo2 dropping occurs earlier. Results Medical records of seven deceased patients reviewed. All of them had electrocardiogram changes including premature ventricular contraction or bradycardia as a first warning sign. Oxygen saturation remains above 95% even with cardiac dysrhythmia. Conclusions Bradycardia and premature ventricular contraction were the first warning findings for severe hypercapnia during general anesthesia and occurred earlier than dropping oxygen saturation. Furthermore, the normal capnography waveform is more reliable than the End-tidal Co2 number for monitoring.


Author(s):  
В.П. Смоленцев ◽  
А.А. Извеков

Рассмотрены вопросы изготовления открытых и полуоткрытых полостей в труднообрабатываемых деталях путем использования твердого электролита, наносимого на заготовку перед установкой удаляемой вставки. Показаны особенности протекания процесса анодного растворения припуска при статическом состоянии рабочей среды. Такие исследования выполнены впервые. Разработаны и проверены на практике изготовления типовых деталей режимы обработки для реализации процесса. Показано, что твердые электролиты имеют перспективы для дальнейшего использования при проектировании технологических процессов изготовления сложнопрофильных изделий из металлических труднообрабатываемых материалов, в том числе внедряемых на создаваемых образцах ракетно-космической техники. Они расширяют технологические возможности комбинированных методов, в которых одним из воздействующих факторов является электрическое и электромагнитное поле с высокой концентрацией мощности в импульсе. Впервые достигнута возможность разделять сборочные единицы путем образования зазора между сопрягаемыми деталями без доступа в зону обработки жидкой рабочей среды, определяющей возможность локального съема припуска в месте сопряжения и удаления слоя материала, достаточного для разборки узлов. Заложены основы использования для нанесения твердого электролита аддитивных технологий путем наращивания равномерных слоев перед сборкой изделия. Предлагаемая технология перспективна для изготовления сборных конструкций с ограниченным доступом инструмента в зону выполнения операции. Кроме того, новая технология может успешно применяться в процессе ремонта машин We considered the issues of manufacturing open and semi-open cavities in difficult-to-machine parts by using solid electrolyte applied to the workpiece before installing the removable insert. We show the features of the process of anodic dissolution of the allowance at a static state of the working medium. Such studies have been performed for the first time. We developed and tested in practice the processing modes for the implementation of the process for the manufacture of standard parts. We show that solid electrolytes have prospects for further use in the design of technological processes for the manufacture of complex-profile products from metal hard-to-machine materials, including those introduced on the created samples of rocket and space technology. They expand the technological capabilities of combined methods, in which one of the influencing factors is an electric and electromagnetic field with a high concentration of power in a pulse. For the first time, the ability to separate assembly units by forming a gap between mating parts without access to the processing zone of a liquid working medium has been achieved, which determines the possibility of local removal of the allowance at the mating point and removal of a layer of material sufficient for disassembling the units. We laid the foundations for the use of additive technologies for applying solid electrolyte by building up uniform layers before assembling the product. The proposed technology is promising for the manufacture of prefabricated structures with limited tool access to the operation area. In addition, the new technology can be successfully applied in the process of car repair


Solid Earth ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 137-160
Author(s):  
Tiange Xing ◽  
Hamed O. Ghaffari ◽  
Ulrich Mok ◽  
Matej Pec

Abstract. Geological carbon sequestration provides permanent CO2 storage to mitigate the current high concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. CO2 mineralization in basalts has been proven to be one of the most secure storage options. For successful implementation and future improvements of this technology, the time-dependent deformation behavior of reservoir rocks in the presence of reactive fluids needs to be studied in detail. We conducted load-stepping creep experiments on basalts from the CarbFix site (Iceland) under several pore fluid conditions (dry, H2O saturated and H2O + CO2 saturated) at temperature, T≈80 ∘C and effective pressure, Peff=50 MPa, during which we collected mechanical, acoustic and pore fluid chemistry data. We observed transient creep at stresses as low as 11 % of the failure strength. Acoustic emissions (AEs) correlated strongly with strain accumulation, indicating that the creep deformation was a brittle process in agreement with microstructural observations. The rate and magnitude of AEs were higher in fluid-saturated experiments than in dry conditions. We infer that the predominant mechanism governing creep deformation is time- and stress-dependent subcritical dilatant cracking. Our results suggest that the presence of aqueous fluids exerts first-order control on creep deformation of basaltic rocks, while the composition of the fluids plays only a secondary role under the studied conditions.


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