Role of alkali chloride on formation of ultrafine particulate matter during combustion of typical food waste

Fuel ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 315 ◽  
pp. 123153
Mingkai Cheng ◽  
Sheng Chen ◽  
Yu Qiao ◽  
Minghou Xu
Fuel ◽  
2016 ◽  
Vol 184 ◽  
pp. 185-191 ◽  
Yishu Xu ◽  
Xiaowei Liu ◽  
Penghui Zhang ◽  
Junzhe Guo ◽  
Jinke Han ◽  

2014 ◽  
Vol 133 ◽  
pp. 144-151 ◽  
Yishu Xu ◽  
Xiaowei Liu ◽  
Zijian Zhou ◽  
Lei Sheng ◽  
Chao Wang ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Lina Chen ◽  
Yuan Guo ◽  
Shuiqing Qu ◽  
Kai Li ◽  
Ting Yang ◽  

Background and Purpose: Ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM) induces oxidative stress (OS) and is considered to be a risk factor of myocardial ischemia (MI). Shengmai formula (SMF) is a traditional Chinese medicine with antioxidant properties and has been used to treat cardiovascular diseases for a long time. The aim of this study was to explore the protective role of SMF and the mechanism by which it prevents myocardial injury in UFPM-exposed rats with MI.Methods: An MI rat model was established. Animals were randomly divided into five groups: sham, UFPM + MI, SMF (1.08 mg/kg⋅d) + UFPM + MI, SMF (2.16 mg/kg⋅d) + UFPM + MI, and SMF (4.32 mg/kg⋅d) + UFPM + MI. SMF or saline was administrated 7 days before UFPM instillation (100 μg/kg), followed by 24 h of ischemia. Physiological and biochemical parameters were measured, and histopathological examinations were conducted to evaluate myocardial damage. We also explored the potential mechanism of the protective role of SMF using a system pharmacology approach and an in vitro myoblast cell model with small molecule inhibitors.Results: UFPM produced myocardial injuries on myocardial infarct size; serum levels of LDH, CK-MB, and cardiac troponin; and OS responses in the rats with MI. Pretreatment with SMF significantly attenuated these damages via reversing the biomarkers. SMF also improved histopathology induced by UFPM and significantly altered the PI3K/AKT/MAPK and OS signaling pathways. The expression patterns of Cat, Gstk1, and Cyba in the UFPM model group were reversed in the SMF-treated group. In in vitro studies, SMF attenuated UFPM-induced reactive oxygen species production, mitochondrial damage, and OS responses. The PI3K/AKT/p38 MAPK/Nrf2 pathway was significantly changed in the SMF group compared with that in the UFPM group, whereas opposite results were obtained for pathway inhibition.Conclusion: These findings indicate that SMF prevents OS responses and exerts beneficial effects against myocardial injury induced by UFPM + MI in rats. Furthermore, the PI3K/AKT/p38 MAPK/Nrf2 signaling pathway might be involved in the protective effects of SMF.

2012 ◽  
Vol 46 (4) ◽  
pp. 2234-2241 ◽  
Srijan Aggarwal ◽  
Ricky Jain ◽  
Julian D. Marshall

Appetite ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 105188
Guillaume Le Borgne ◽  
Lucie Sirieix ◽  
Pierre Valette-Florence ◽  
Sandrine Costa

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Burcu Kör ◽  
Adriana Krawczyk ◽  
Ingrid Wakkee

PurposeFood waste is one of the most challenging issues humanity is currently facing. Therefore, there has been a growing interest in the prevention of food waste because of world hunger, environmental impacts, resource scarcity and economic costs. The purpose of the study is to investigate the factors that influence food waste and the role of technology in tackling food waste in India and the Netherlands.Design/methodology/approachIn order to explore differences in food loss and waste further this study will examine a number of practices on both the production and the consumer side, in a developing country and a developed country with different culture/economic backgrounds: India and the Netherlands. The factors that influence food waste were examined with a preliminary qualitative study, which consists of semi-structured interviews, and quantitative research that comprises a survey. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in both India and the Netherlands, which consists of five interviews. The survey data was collected from 78 individuals from India and 115 individuals from the Netherlands.FindingsOne of the main findings of the research is food waste is divided into waste within agricultural production (i.e. food loss) and final household consumption (i.e. food waste). Different factors influence food loss in different stages in the supply chain. Some of these factors include wastage during processing, storage, transportation and at the market-place. New technologies can utilize food loss for new purposes, so food loss is reduced to the minimum. Food waste is mainly influenced by food passing expiry date, food that is left too long in the fridge and consumers buying too much food. In final household consumption, technologies such as digital platforms enable individuals or organizations to share and donate their food, thereby creating awareness on food waste prevention and the environmental and ethical benefits.Originality/valueThe authors examine to what extent and in which ways supporting consumers to minimize food waste can be achieved via three stages: (1) understanding and evaluating food loss and waste, (2) identifying the factors that influence food loss and waste, (3) understanding consumer behaviors to encourage food waste reduction and (4) identifying the technological impact that would reduce food waste. As such, this paper contributes to ongoing debates about food waste by looking at the role of context and culture and by exploring differences between developed and developing countries. Also, the authors advance the debate by exploring both the role of advanced technology such as blockchain and drones in both preventing loss and waste as well as non-technological mechanisms.

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