This review summarizes the structure and function of the alveolar unit, comprised of alveolar macrophage and epithelial cell types that work in tandem to respond to infection. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) helps to maintain the alveolar epithelium and pulmonary immune system under physiological conditions and plays a critical role in restoring homeostasis under pathologic conditions, including infection. Given the emergence of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and global spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with subsequent acute respiratory distress syndrome, understanding basic lung physiology in infectious diseases is especially warranted. This review summarizes clinical and preclinical data for GM-CSF in respiratory infections, and the rationale for sargramostim (yeast-derived recombinant human [rhu] GM-CSF) as adjunctive treatment for COVID-19 and other pulmonary infectious diseases.
Background: There is controversy over whether use of new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) associates with increased hemorrhage risk compared with non-NOAC. Meanwhile, determining which NOAC to use remains unclear. We aimed to summarize the evidence about NOACs in venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention for patients with total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA and TKA).Methods: We searched RCTs assessing NOACs for VTE prophylaxis in adults undergoing THA and TKA in Medline, Embase, and Cochrane up to May 2021. Primary outcomes were VTE [included deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE)], major VTE, and major bleeding. The rank probabilities of each treatment were summarized by the surface under the cumulative ranking curve area (SUCRA).Results: 25 RCTs with 42,994 patients were included. Compared with non-NOAC, NOACs were associated with a decreased risk of VTE (RR 0.68; 95% CI 0.55–0.84) and major VTE (RR = 0.52; 95% CI 0.35–0.76). Additionally, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban but not dabigatran and betrixaban, did confer a higher efficacy compared with non-NOAC. None of the individual NOACs increased the risk of bleeding, while apixaban and betrixaban were even associated with a decreased risk of bleeding. In the comparison of different NOACs, rivaroxaban was associated with the greatest benefits in VTE (SUCRA = 79.6), DVT (SUCRA = 88.8), and major VTE (SUCRA = 89.9) prevention. Furthermore, subgroup analysis confirmed that NOACs associated with a higher efficacy tendency in patients with follow-up duration <60 days than follow-up duration ≥60 days.Conclusion: Evidence suggests that NOACs exert more benefits on VTE prophylaxis, and none of the individual NOACs increased hemorrhage compared with non-NOAC. Among various NOACs, rivaroxaban is recommended in patients with lower bleeding risk, and apixaban is recommended in patients with higher bleeding risk.Systematic Review Registration: [https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/], identifier [CRD42021266890].
Atherosclerosis (AS) seriously impairs the health of human beings and is manifested initially as endothelial cells (ECs) impairment and dysfunction in vascular intima, which can be alleviated through mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) induced by stromal-cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α). A strong inverse correlation between HDL and AS has been proposed. The aim of the present work is to investigate whether 4F, an apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I, major component protein of HDL) mimic peptide, can upregulate SDF-1α in mice and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the underlying mechanism. The protein levels of SDF-1α were measured by ELISA assay. Protein levels of HIF-1α, phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), and phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) were evaluated by Western blotting analysis. The results show that L-4F significantly upregulates protein levels of HIF-1α, Akt, and ERK, which can be inhibited by the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, or ERK inhibitor, PD98059, respectively. Particularly, LY294002 can downregulate the levels of p-ERK, while PD98059 cannot suppress that of p-Akt. D-4F can upregulate the levels of HIF, p-Akt, and p-ERK in the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava from mice. These results suggest that 4F promotes SDF-1α expression in ECs through PI3K/Akt/ERK/HIF-1α signaling pathway.
In sickle cell disease (SCD), the pathological shift of red blood cells (RBCs) into distorted morphologies under hypoxic conditions follows activation of a cationic leak current (Psickle) and cell dehydration. Prior work showed sickling was reduced by 5-hydroxylmethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF), which stabilized mutant hemoglobin and also blocked the Psickle current in RBCs, though the molecular basis of this 5-HMF-sensitive cation current remained a mystery. Work here is the first to test the hypothesis that Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) cation channels contribute to the monovalent component of Psickle. Human AQP1 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes were evaluated for sensitivity to 5-HMF and four derivatives known to have differential efficacies in preventing RBC sickling. Ion conductances were measured by two-electrode voltage clamp, and osmotic water permeability by optical swelling assays. Compounds tested were: 5-HMF; 5-PMFC (5-(phenoxymethyl)furan-2-carbaldehyde); 5-CMFC (5-(4-chlorophenoxymethyl)furan-2-carbaldehyde); 5-NMFC (5-(2-nitrophenoxymethyl)-furan-2-carbaldehyde); and VZHE006 (tert-butyl (5-formylfuran-2-yl)methyl carbonate). The most effective anti-sickling agent, 5-PMFC, was the most potent inhibitor of the AQP1 ion conductance (98% block at 100 µM). The order of sensitivity of the AQP1 conductance to inhibition was 5-PMFC > VZHE006 > 5-CMFC ≥ 5-NMFC, which corresponded with effectiveness in protecting RBCs from sickling. None of the compounds altered AQP1 water channel activity. Combined application of a selective AQP1 ion channel blocker AqB011 (80 µM) with a selective hemoglobin modifying agent 5-NMFC (2.5 mM) increased anti-sickling effectiveness in red blood cells from human SCD patients. Another non-selective cation channel known to be expressed in RBCs, Piezo1, was unaffected by 2 mM 5-HMF. Results suggest that inhibition of AQP1 ion channels and capacity to modify hemoglobin are combined features of the most effective anti-sickling agents. Future therapeutics aimed at both targets could hold promise for improved treatments for SCD.
Increased Nogo-B receptor (NGBR) expression in the liver improves insulin sensitivity by reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) and activating the AMPK pathway, although it remains elusive the mechanisms by which NGBR is induced. In this study, we found that PPARγ ligands (rosiglitazone or pioglitazone) increased NGBR expression in hepatic cells and HUVECs. Furthermore, promoter analysis defined two PPREs (PPARγ-responsive elements) in the promoter region of NGBR, which was further confirmed by the ChIP assay. In vivo, using liver-specific PPARγ deficient (PPARγLKO) mice, we identified the key role of PPARγ expression in pioglitazone-induced NGBR expression. Meanwhile, the basal level of ER stress and inflammation was slightly increased by NGBR knockdown. However, the inhibitory effect of rosiglitazone on inflammation was abolished while rosiglitazone-inhibited ER stress was weakened by NGBR knockdown. Taken together, these findings show that NGBR is a previously unrecognized target of PPARγ activation and plays an essential role in PPARγ-reduced ER stress and inflammation.
Background: Observational studies have revealed the association between some inflammatory cytokines and the occurrence of ischemic stroke, but the causal relationships remain unclear.Methods: We conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to assess the causal effects of thirty inflammatory cytokines and the risk of ischemic stroke. For exposure data, we collected genetic variants associated with inflammatory cytokines as instrumental variables (IVs) from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis from Finland (sample size up to 8,293). For the outcome data, we collected summary data of ischemic stroke from a large-scale GWAS meta-analysis involved 17 studies (34,217 cases and 406,111 controls). We further performed a series of sensitivity analyses as validation of primary MR results.Results: According to the primary MR estimations and further sensitivity analyses, we established one robust association after Bonferroni correction: the odds ratio (95% CI) per unit change in genetically increased IL-4 was 0.84 (0.89–0.95) for ischemic stroke. The chemokine MCP3 showed a nominally significant association with ischemic stroke risk (OR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.88–0.99, unadjusted p < 0.05). There was no evidence of a causal effect of other inflammatory cytokines and the risk of ischemic stroke.Conclusions: Our study suggested that genetically increased IL-4 levels showed a protective effect on the risk of ischemic stroke, which provides important new insights into the potential therapeutic target for preventing ischemic stroke.
Overexpression of the multidrug resistance (MDR)-related protein P-glycoprotein (PGP1), which actively extrudes chemotherapeutic agents from cells and significantly decreases the efficacy of chemotherapy, is viewed as a major obstacle in osteosarcoma chemotherapy. Anlotinib, a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), has good anti-tumor effects in a variety of solid tumors. However, there are few studies on the mechanism of anlotinib reversing chemotherapy resistance in osteosarcoma. In this study, cellular assays were performed in vitro and in vivo to evaluate the MDR reversal effects of anlotinib on multidrug-resistant osteosarcoma cell lines. Drug efflux and intracellular drug accumulation were measured by flow cytometry. The vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity of PGP1 was measured in the presence of a range of anlotinib concentrations. The protein expression level of ABCB1 was detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis. Our results showed that anlotinib significantly increased the sensitivity of KHOSR2 and U2OSR2 cells (which overexpress PGP1) to chemotherapeutic agents in vitro and in a KHOSR2 xenograft nude mouse model in vivo. Mechanistically, anlotinib increases the intracellular accumulation of PGP1 substrates by inhibiting the efflux function of PGP1 in multidrug-resistant cell lines. Furthermore, anlotinib stimulated the ATPase activity of PGP1 but affected neither the protein expression level nor the localization of PGP1. In animal studies, anlotinib in combination with doxorubicin (DOX) significantly decreased the tumor growth rate and the tumor size in the KHOSR2 xenograft nude mouse model. Overall, our findings suggest that anlotinib may be useful for circumventing MDR to other conventional antineoplastic drugs.
It is a viable strategy to inhibit osteoclast differentiation for the treatment of osteolytic diseases such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis and tumor bone metastases. Here we assessed the effects of insulicolide A, a natural nitrobenzoyl sesquiterpenoid derived from marine fungus, on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-stimulated osteoclastogenesis in vitro and its protective effects on LPS-induced osteolysis mice model in vivo. The results demonstrated that insulicolide A inhibited osteoclastogenesis from 1 μM in vitro. Insulicolide A could prevent c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T-cell cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) nuclear translocation and attenuate the expression levels of osteoclast-related genes and DC-STAMP during RANKL-stimulated osteoclastogenesis but have no effects on NF-κB and MAPKs. Insulicolide A can also protect the mice from LPS-induced osteolysis. Our research provides the first evidence that insulicolide A may inhibit osteoclastogenesis both in vitro and in vivo, and indicates that it may have potential for the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases.
Background: This study aimed to evaluate clinical features and prognosis and therapy option of patients with different risk ranks based on antibody against the M-type phospholipase-A2-receptor (PLA2Rab) level in seropositive M-type phospholipase-A2-receptor (PLA2R)-associated membranous nephropathy (MN) in a large sample size, multi-center study.Method: Based on the unvalidated cut-off value of PLA2Rab above 150 RU/ml as one of the clinical criteria for high risk of progressive kidney function loss in MN according to 2020 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) draft guidelines recommendation, a total of 447 patients who received cyclophosphamide (CTX) or tacrolimus (TAC) combined with corticosteroids treatment for 12 months were divided into high titer (>150 RU/ml) group and non-high titer (20–150 RU/ml) group, which were subdivided into CTX subgroup and TAC subgroup. The overall cohort was classified into CTX group and TAC group as well. Clinical parameters levels and remission rates were recorded at 3, 6, and 12 months follow-up. PLA2Rab was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results: Patients with high titer PLA2Rab were associated with more severe proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia compared to those with non-high titer antibody, accompanied by lower complete remission (CR) and total remission (TR) rates at 3, 6, and 12 months, which even took longer to remission. Similar remission rates differences between the two titer groups were observed in the CTX and TAC groups, respectively. PLA2Rab level at baseline was an independent predictive factor for CR and TR. In the high titer group, CR and TR rates in the CTX subgroup were significantly higher than those in the TAC subgroup at 12 months, although serious adverse events were more frequent in the former.Conclusion: High-risk rank patients with PLA2Rab level above 150 RU/ml have higher disease activity and worse prognosis among patients with seropositive PLA2R-associated MN, even under different immunosuppressive therapeutic models; moreover, CTX combined with corticosteroids was preferred compared to TAC plus corticosteroids, although serious adverse events were more frequent in the former. Additionally, baseline PLA2Rab level was an independent predictive factor for clinical remission.
Spices-dried aromatic parts of plants (leaves, seeds, bark, roots, rhizomes, buds, etc) used to enhance flavour, taste and colour (sensory quality) of foods, are increasingly finding other useful roles in healthcare beyond their primary use as culinary organoleptic enhancers. Several spices are currently being investigated for their potential health benefits, because of the failing efficacy, toxicity and high cost associated with conventional drugs. One such spice: Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. and L.M.Perry [Myrtaceae] (Clove), has a multi-dimensional role in diet, medicine, functional foods and nutraceuticals, agriculture, among other industries. Peer-reviewed articles, mostly from PubMed and Google Scholar, were consulted for the purpose of this review. The nutritional and phytochemical contents, selected biological activities as well as some functional foods and beverages of clove and their uses for human health are presented. Although these observations are largely empirical, the efficacious attributes have led to their pharmacological applications in the indigenous system of medicine all over the world and bridge between food, diet and medicine. Considering the GRAS status of clove, more studies on bioavailability, accumulation, toxicity, dosage and efficacy of clove as a spice drug or functional foods in biological systems especially in humans are required. Meanwhile, clove and its products can be used as co-adjuvants in the prevention, treatment and management of chronic diseases. Further, many applications of clove in food, health, cosmetics, pharmaceutics, nanoparticles and agricultural industries are still open for investigations.