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Updated Sunday, 17 October 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xiangkai Zhao ◽  
Jian Zhang ◽  
Jialin Guo ◽  
Jinxin Wang ◽  
Yuhui Pan ◽  
...  

Background: Dual antiplatelet therapy combining aspirin with a P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitor is a therapeutic mainstay for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, the optimal choice of P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitor in elderly (aged ≥65 years) patients remains controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to compare the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor and clopidogrel in elderly patients with ACS. Methods: We comprehensively searched in Web of Science, EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane databases through 29th March, 2021 for eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor or clopidogrel plus aspirin in elderly patients with ACS. Four studies were included in the final analysis. A fixed effects model or random effects model was applied to analyze risk ratios (RRs) and hazard ratios (HRs) across studies, and I2 to assess heterogeneity.Results: A total number of 4429 elderly patients with ACS were included in this analysis, of whom 2170 (49.0%) patients received aspirin plus ticagrelor and 2259 (51.0%) received aspirin plus clopidogrel. The ticagrelor group showed a significant advantage over the clopidogrel group concerning all-cause mortality (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.63–0.96, I2 = 0%; RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.66–0.95, I2 = 0%) and cardiovascular death (HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.56–0.91, I2 = 0%; RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.62–0.94, I2 = 5%) but owned a higher risk of PLATO major or minor bleeding (HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.13–1.89, I2 = 0%; RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.11–1.76, I2 = 0%). Both the groups showed no significant difference regarding major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) (HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.68–1.65, I2 = 77%; RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.69–1.58, I2 = 77%).Conclusion: For elderly ACS patients, aspirin plus ticagrelor reduces cardiovascular death and all-cause mortality but increases the risk of bleeding. Herein, aspirin plus ticagrelor may extend lifetime for elderly ACS patients compared with aspirin plus clopidogrel. The optimal DAPT for elderly ACS patients may be a valuable direction for future research studies.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yuko Morino ◽  
Mitsushige Sugimoto ◽  
Naoyoshi Nagata ◽  
Ryota Niikiura ◽  
Eri Iwata ◽  
...  

Background: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the first-line treatment for acid-related diseases. The pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy of PPIs, however, are influenced by genetic factors such as variants in genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes (e.g., cytochrome P450 2C19 [CYP2C19]) and drug transporters. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the influence of CYP2C19 genotype and PPI class, PPI dose, treatment duration and clarithromycin dose on the cure rate of PPI-containing Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy.Methods: Randomized control trials (RCTs) investigating cure rates using a PPI-amoxicillin-clarithromycin regimen among different CYP2C19 genotypes through May 2021 were included.Results: A total of 25 studies (5,318 patients) were included. The overall eradication rate in the intention-to-treat analysis was 79.0% (3,689/4,669, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 77.8–80.2%), and that in CYP2C19 extensive metabolizers (EMs), intermediate metabolizer (IMs) and poor metabolizers (PMs) was 77.7% (1,137/1,464, 95% CI: 75.3–79.6%), 81.2% (1,498/1,844, 95% CI: 79.3–83.0%) and 86.8% (644/742, 95% CI: 83.9–88.9%), respectively. Meta-analysis showed that the relaTakashitive risk of failed eradication in CYP2C19 EMs compared with IMs and PMs was 1.21 (95% CI: 1.06–1.39, P = 0.006) and 1.57 (95% CI: 1.27–1.94, P < 0.001), respectively, in the fixed-effects model. The cure rate of omeprazole and lansoprazole-containing eradication regimens differed among CYP2C19 genotypes (P < 0.05), while that of rabeprazole and esomeprazole-containing regimens was similar.Conclusion: The cure rates of PPI-amoxicillin-clarithromycin H. pylori eradication regimen, especially those containing omeprazole and lansoprazole, differ among CYP2C19 genotypes. Therefore, selection of a second-generation PPI or tailored treatment may achieve higher eradication rates than first-generation PPI-amoxicillin-clarithromycin triple regimen.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yu-Lin Wu ◽  
Jin-Fen Chen ◽  
Lin-Yun Jiang ◽  
Xiao-Li Wu ◽  
Yu-Hong Liu ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Peng Liu ◽  
Mengchun Gong ◽  
Jie Li ◽  
Gareth Baynam ◽  
Weiguo Zhu ◽  
...  

Background: In China, there are severe unmet medical needs of people living with rare diseases. Relatedly, there is a dearth of data to inform rare diseases policy. This is historically partially due to the lack of informatics infrastructure, including standards and terminology, data sharing mechanisms and network; and concerns over patient privacy protection.Objective: This study aims to introduce the progress of China's rare disease informatics platform and knowledgebase, and to discuss critical enablers of rare disease informatics innovation, including: data standardization; knowledgebase construction; national policy support; and multi-stakeholder participation.Methods: A systemic national strategy, delivered through multi-stakeholder engagement, has been implemented to create and accelerate the informatics infrastructure to support rare diseases management. This includes a disease registry system, together with more than 80 hospitals, to perform comprehensive research information collection, including clinical, genomic and bio-sample data. And a case reporting system, with a network of 324 hospitals, covering all mainland Chinese provinces, to further support reporting of rare diseases data. International standards were incorporated, and privacy issues were addressed through HIPAA compliant rules.Results: The National Rare Diseases Registry System of China (NRDRS) now covers 166 rare diseases and more than 63,000 registered patients. The National Rare Diseases Case Reporting System of China (NRDCRS) was primarily founded on the National Network of Rare Diseases (NNRD) of 324 hospitals and focused on real-time rare diseases case reporting; more than 400,000 cases have been reported. Based on the data available in the two systems, the National Center for Health Technology Assessment (HTA) of Orphan Medicinal Products (OMP) has been established and the expert consensus on HTA of OMP was produced. The largest knowledgebase for rare disease in Chinese has also been developed.Conclusion: A national strategy and the coordinating mechanism is the key to success in the improvement of Chinese rare disease clinical care and drug accessibility. Application of innovative informatics solutions can help accelerate the process, improve quality and increase efficiency.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Dieter Kunz ◽  
Amely Wahnschaffe ◽  
Nina Kaempfe ◽  
Richard Mahlberg

The pineal hormone melatonin is the natural transducer of the environmental light–dark signal to the body. Although the responsiveness to photoperiod is well-conserved in humans, only about 25 percent of the human population experiences seasonal changes in behavior. As a consequence, humans seem to have adapted—at least partly—to the seasonal changes in day length. The aim of the study was to demonstrate that the individual melatonin deficit marker DOC (degree of pineal calcification) is related to variation of seasonal phenomena in humans. Out of 3,011 patients in which cranial computer tomography (cCT) was performed for diagnostic reasons, 97 consecutive “healthy” subjects (43 female, 54 male; age 18–68 yrs, mean ± SD: 35.0 ± 13.1) were included. Exclusion criteria were pathological finding in cCT, acute/chronic illness including alcohol/drug abuse, shift work, and medication, which are known to influence melatonin excretion. The degree of pineal calcification (DOC) was semiquantitatively determined using the previously validated method. The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) was performed in a telephone interview. Twenty-six subjects fulfilled the criteria for seasonal affective disorder (SAD) or subsyndromal (S) SAD. Seasonality was more pronounced in women than in men (SPAQ seasonality score: 7.8 ± 4.0 vs. 4.9 ± 4.5; p = 0.001) and negatively and significantly associated with age (r = −0.178; p = 0.04). The subjective sleep length significantly varied between seasons (one-way repeated measures ANOVA: F = 45.75; p < 0.0001), with sleep during winter being 53 min (±70 min) longer than during summer. Controlling for age, the total seasonality score was negatively and significantly associated with DOC (r94 = −0.214; p = 0.036). Data confirm earlier studies with respect to distribution of seasonality with sex and age. The survival of seasonality in the sleep length of people living in an urban environment underlines functionality of the circadian timing system in modern societies. Moreover, data confirm for the first time that diminished experience of seasonality in behavior is associated with a reduced individual capacity to produce melatonin.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Deling Zou ◽  
Yanyu Li ◽  
Guangping Sun

Chronic heart failure (HF) frequently causes progressive decline in kidney function, known as cardiorenal syndrome-2 (CRS2). Current treatment options for CRS2 remain unacceptably limited. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a metabolite of gut microbiota, has recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of both HF and chronic kidney disease. Here we examined whether circulating TMAO is elevated in CRS2 and if so, whether attenuation of circulating TMAO would ameliorate the progression of CRS2. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent surgery for myocardial infarction (MI) or sham (week 0) followed by subtotal (5/6) nephrectomy (STNx) or sham at week 4 to induce CRS2 or control. At week 6, MI + STNx rats and control rats received vehicle or 1.0% 3,3-Dimethyl-1-butanol (DMB, a TMAO inhibitor) treatment for 8 weeks. Compared with control rats, MI + STNx rats exhibited elevated serum TMAO at week 6, which was increased further at week 14 but was attenuated by DMB treatment. MI + STNx rats showed cardiac dysfunction as assessed by echocardiography and renal dysfunction as evidenced by increased serum creatinine and urinary kidney injury molecule-1 and decreased creatinine clearance at week 6. The cardiac and renal dysfunction in MI + STNx rats was exacerbated at week 14 but was prevented by DMB treatment. Molecular and histological studies revealed myocyte hypertrophy and increases in interstitial myocardial fibrosis and gene expression of pro-hypertrophic and pro-fibrotic markers in both heart and kidney at week 14, which were accompanied by elevated gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines. The changes in molecular and histological parameters observed in MI + STNx rats were significantly reduced by DMB treatment. These findings suggest that rats with CRS2 have elevated circulating TMAO, which is associated with the exacerbation of cardiac and renal dysfunction. Attenuation of circulating TMAO can ameliorate cardiac and renal injury and prevents the progression of CRS2.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Anqi Lin ◽  
Wentao Xu ◽  
Peng Luo ◽  
Jian Zhang

In recent years, tumor immunotherapy has become an important treatment program and popular research focus. However, the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) in the treatment of colorectal cancer still has limitations due to the current markers only being able to predict the prognosis of a small number of patients. As the chemokine signaling pathway can promote the anti-tumor response of the immune system by recruiting immune cells, we explored the relationship between mutations in the chemokine signaling pathway and the prognosis of colon adenocarcinoma (COAD) patients receiving ICI treatment. To analyze the relationship between chemokine mutation status and the prognosis of patients receiving ICI treatment, clinical and mutation data, with immunotherapy, for a COAD cohort was obtained from “cbioportal.” Then, combining this with COAD cohort data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, the panorama of gene mutation, immunogenicity, and difference in tumor microenvironment (TME) of chemokine pathways with different mutation statuses were analyzed. High-mut status has been proved to be a prognostic indicator of COAD patients receiving ICI treatment by Univariate and Multivariate Cox regression analysis. CIBERSORT analysis showed that the infiltration degree of M1 macrophages, neutrophils, and activated natural killer (NK) cells was higher in those with high-mut status. Immunogenicity of the high-mut group was also significantly increased, with the mutation number of tumor mutation burden (TMB), neoantigen load (NAL), DNA damage repair (DDR) pathway and microsatellite instability biomarker (MSI-H) being significantly higher. In this study, we found that the mutation state of chemokine pathways is closely associated with the prognosis of COAD patients undergoing ICI treatment. The higher number of TMB, NAL, and DDR mutations and inflammatory TME, may be the mechanism of behind a better prognosis. This discovery provides a possible idea for ICI therapy of COAD.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ben A. Chindo ◽  
Melanie-Jayne R. Howes ◽  
Sawsan Abuhamdah ◽  
Musa I. Yakubu ◽  
Godwin I. Ayuba ◽  
...  

Melissa officinalis L. is used in traditional European and Iranian folk medicines to treat a plethora of neurological diseases including epilepsy. We utilized the in vitro and in vivo models of epilepsy to probe the anticonvulsant potentials of essential oil from M. officinalis (MO) to gain insight into the scientific basis for its applications in traditional medicine for the management of convulsive disorders. MO was evaluated for effects on maximal electroshock (MES) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) -induced seizures in mice, on 4–aminopyridine (4-AP)-brain slice model of epilepsy and sustained repetitive firing of current clamped neurons; and its ameliorative effects were examined on seizure severity, anxiety, depression, cognitive dysfunction, oxidative stress and neuronal cell loss in PTZ-kindled rats. MO reversibly blocked spontaneous ictal-like discharges in the 4-AP-brain slice model of epilepsy and secondary spikes from sustained repetitive firing, suggesting anticonvulsant effects and voltage-gated sodium channel blockade. MO protected mice from PTZ– and MES–induced seizures and mortality, and ameliorated seizure severity, fear-avoidance, depressive-like behavior, cognitive deficits, oxidative stress and neuronal cell loss in PTZ–kindled rats. The findings warrant further study for the potential use of MO and/or its constituent(s) as adjunctive therapy for epileptic patients.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jing Shao ◽  
Zhaocheng Li ◽  
Yanping Gao ◽  
Kairui Zhao ◽  
Minling Lin ◽  
...  

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is considered an immune disease, which is related to the dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota and disorders of the host immune system and metabolism. Sophora flavescens Aiton has been used for the clinical treatment of UC in China and East Asia for thousands of years. It has many traditional prescriptions and modern preparations, and its curative effects are definite. We are the first to report that the flavonoids in Sophora flavescens (S. flavescens) Aiton EtOAc extract (SFE) could potentially attenuate the dextran sodium sulfate–induced UC in mice, which changed the current understanding of considering alkaloids as the only anti-UC pharmacological substances of S. flavescens Aiton. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metabolomic analysis, it was found that the anti-UC effects of SFE were due to the regulation of gut microbiota, reversing the abnormal metabolisms, and regulation of the short-chain fatty acids synthesis. Notably, according to the interaction networks of specific bacteria and “bacteria and metabolites” co-expression network, the SFE could enrich the abundance of the commensal bacterium Lactobacillus, Roseburia, norank_f__Muribaculaceae, Anaerotruncus, Candidatus_Saccharimona, and Parasutterella, which are proposed as potentially beneficial bacteria, thereby playing vital roles in the treatment of UC.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ziying Wei ◽  
Xiaoyan Zhan ◽  
Kaixin Ding ◽  
Guang Xu ◽  
Wei Shi ◽  
...  

The abnormal activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome is closely related to the occurrence and development of many inflammatory diseases. Targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome has been considered an efficient therapy to treat infections. We found that dihydrotanshinone I (DHT) specifically blocked the canonical and non-canonical activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Nevertheless, DHT had no relation with the activation of AIM2 or the NLRC4 inflammasome. Further study demonstrated that DHT had no influences on potassium efflux, calcium flux, or the production of mitochondrial ROS. We also discovered that DHT suppressed ASC oligomerization induced by NLRP3 agonists, suggesting that DHT inhibited the assembly of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Importantly, DHT possessed a significant therapeutic effect on NLRP3 inflammasome–mediated sepsis in mice. Therefore, our results aimed to clarify DHT as a specific small-molecule inhibitor for the NLRP3 inflammasome and suggested that DHT can be used as a potential drug against NLRP3-mediated diseases.


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