Abstract The study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Zizyphus oxyphyla leaves methanolic (ZOX-LME), on serum liver, kidney and hematology along with other serum parameters in Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxicated rabbits. Experimental animals were divided into five groups, six rabbits in each. These were: group NC (normal control), group, TC (toxic control) and group ST i.e. silymarine administered group at dose rate (50) mg/kg body weight (BW). Group ET1 and group ET2 treated with (ZOX-LME) at dose 200 mg/kg BW and 400 mg/kg BW. CCl4 administration caused significant (P> 0.05) impairment in serum liver enzymes, blood factors and other serum indices. Treatment with (ZOX-LME) significantly (P<0.05) reduced and normalized the levels of serum alanine transaminase (ALT) aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and hematological indices. Also significant (P< 0.05) reduction was observed in creatinine, urea, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and albumin and glucose concentrations. The altered levels of lipid profile and serum electrolytes (Ca, Mg, Cl, Na, K, and P) were significantly (P<0.05) change toward normal levels with (ZOX-LME) feeding. In addition (ZOX-LME) ingestion caused significant improvement in GSH, GST and CAT levels, while reducing the TBARS levels, exhibited antioxidant capacity. Also (ZOX-LME) showed increase inhibition against percent scavenging of 2, 2-diphenile-1-picrylehydrazyle (DPPH) free radical. Significant (P<0.05) normalizing effects were observed with high dose 400 mg/kg BW of (ZOX-LME and were equivalent to silymarine administered groups. The histological study of liver supported the hepatoprotective and renal curative activity of (ZOX-LME).
Objectives: Radiotherapy improves the survival rate of cancer patients, yet it also involves some inevitable complications. Radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) is one of the most serious complications, especially the radiotherapy of thoracic tumors, which is characterized by cardiac oxidative stress disorder and programmed cell death. At present, there is no effective treatment strategy for RIHD; in addition, it cannot be reversed when it progresses. This study aims to explore the role and potential mechanism of microRNA-223-3p (miR-223-3p) in RIHD.Methods: Mice were injected with miR-223-3p mimic, inhibitor, or their respective controls in the tail vein and received a single dose of 20 Gy whole-heart irradiation (WHI) for 16 weeks after 3 days to construct a RIHD mouse model. To inhibit adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) or phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D), compound C (CompC) and AAV9-shPDE4D were used.Results: WHI treatment significantly inhibited the expression of miR-223-3p in the hearts; furthermore, the levels of miR-223-3p decreased in a radiation time-dependent manner. miR-223-3p mimic significantly relieved, while miR-223-3p inhibitor aggravated apoptosis, oxidative damage, and cardiac dysfunction in RIHD mice. In addition, we found that miR-223-3p mimic improves WHI-induced myocardial injury by activating AMPK and that the inhibition of AMPK by CompC completely blocks these protective effects of miR-223-3p mimic. Further studies found that miR-223-3p lowers the protein levels of PDE4D and inhibiting PDE4D by AAV9-shPDE4D blocks the WHI-induced myocardial injury mediated by miR-223-3p inhibitor.Conclusion: miR-223-3p ameliorates WHI-induced RIHD through anti-oxidant and anti-programmed cell death mechanisms via activating AMPK by PDE4D regulation. miR-223-3p mimic exhibits potential value in the treatment of RIHD.
It is a viable strategy to inhibit osteoclast differentiation for the treatment of osteolytic diseases such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis and tumor bone metastases. Here we assessed the effects of insulicolide A, a natural nitrobenzoyl sesquiterpenoid derived from marine fungus, on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-stimulated osteoclastogenesis in vitro and its protective effects on LPS-induced osteolysis mice model in vivo. The results demonstrated that insulicolide A inhibited osteoclastogenesis from 1 μM in vitro. Insulicolide A could prevent c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T-cell cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) nuclear translocation and attenuate the expression levels of osteoclast-related genes and DC-STAMP during RANKL-stimulated osteoclastogenesis but have no effects on NF-κB and MAPKs. Insulicolide A can also protect the mice from LPS-induced osteolysis. Our research provides the first evidence that insulicolide A may inhibit osteoclastogenesis both in vitro and in vivo, and indicates that it may have potential for the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases.
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the current leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Inonotus obliquus (chaga), a medicinal fungus, has been used in treatment of diabetes. Here, we aim to identify the renal protective effects of chaga extracts on a DKD rat model which was induced by a high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection. During the total 17-weeks experiment, the biological parameters of serum and urine were examined, and the color Doppler ultrasound of renal artery, the periodic acid-Schiff staining, and electron microscopy of kidney tissue were performed. The compositions of chaga extracts were analyzed and the intervention effects of the extracts were also observed. Compared with the normal control group, the biochemical research showed that insulin resistance was developed, blood glucose and total cholesterol were elevated, urinary protein excretion and serum creatinine levels were significantly increased in the DKD model. The ultrasound examinations confirmed the deteriorated blood flow parameters of the left renal interlobar artery in the rat models. Finally, histopathological data supported renal injury on the thickened glomerular basement membrane and fusion of the foot processes. 8 weeks intervention of chaga improved the above changes significantly, and the 100 mg/kg/d chaga group experienced significant effects compared with the 50 mg/kg/d in some parameters. Our findings suggested that Doppler ultrasound examinations guided with biochemical indicators played important roles in evaluating the renal injury as an effective, noninvasive, and repeatable method in rats. Based on biochemical, ultrasound, and histopathological evidence, we confirmed that chaga had pharmacodynamic effects on diabetes-induced kidney injury and the aforementioned effects may be related to delaying the progression of DKD.
Diabetes mellitus is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia that promotes ROS formation, causing severe oxidative stress. Furthermore, prolonged hyperglycemia leads to glycation reactions with formation of AGEs that contribute to a chronic inflammatory state. This research aims to evaluate the inhibitory activity of α-mangostin and four synthetic xanthenone derivatives against glycation and oxidative processes and on α-glucosidase, an intestinal hydrolase that catalyzes the cleavage of oligosaccharides into glucose molecules, promoting the postprandial glycemic peak. Antiglycation activity was evaluated using the BSA assay, while antioxidant capacity was detected with the ORAC assay. The inhibition of α-glucosidase activity was studied with multispectroscopic methods along with inhibitory kinetic analysis. α-Mangostin and synthetic compounds at 25 µM reduced the production of AGEs, whereas the α-glucosidase activity was inhibited only by the natural compound. α-Mangostin decreased enzymatic activity in a concentration-dependent manner in the micromolar range by a reversible mixed-type antagonism. Circular dichroism revealed a rearrangement of the secondary structure of α-glucosidase with an increase in the contents of α-helix and random coils and a decrease in β-sheet and β-turn components. The data highlighted the anti-α-glucosidase activity of α-mangostin together with its protective effects on protein glycation and oxidation damage.
Intestinal epithelium provides the largest barrier protecting mammalian species from harmful external factors; however, it can be severely compromised by the presence of bacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Antibiotics have been widely used for the prevention and treatment of GI bacterial infections, leading to antimicrobial resistance in human and veterinary medicine alike. In order to decrease antibiotic usage, natural substances, such as flavonoids, are investigated to be used as antibiotic alternatives. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are potential candidates for this purpose owing to their various beneficial effects in humans and animals. In this study, protective effects of grape seed oligomeric proanthocyanidins (GSOPs) were tested in IPEC-J2 porcine intestinal epithelial cells infected with Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium of swine origin. GSOPs were able to alleviate oxidative stress, inflammation and barrier integrity disruption inflicted by bacteria in the co-culture. Furthermore, GSOPs could decrease the adhesion of both bacteria to IPEC-J2 cells. Based on these observations, GSOPs seem to be promising candidates for the prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal bacterial infections.
C. elegans are used to study molecular pathways, linking high glucose levels (HG) to diabetic complications. Persistent exposure of C. elegans to a HG environment induces the mitochondrial formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), leading to neuronal damage and decreased lifespan. Studies suggest that transient high glucose exposure (TGE) exerts different effects than persistent exposure. Thus, the effects of TGE on ROS, AGE-formation and life span were studied in C. elegans. Four-day TGE (400 mM) as compared to controls (0mM) showed a persistent increase of ROS (4-days 286 ± 40 RLUs vs. control 187 ± 23 RLUs) without increased formation of AGEs. TGE increased body motility (1-day 0.14 ± 0.02; 4-days 0.15 ± 0.01; 6-days 0.16 ± 0.02 vs. control 0.10 ± 0.02 in mm/s), and bending angle (1-day 17.7 ± 1.55; 3-days 18.7 ± 1.39; 6-days 20.3 ± 0.61 vs. control 15.3 ± 1.63 in degree/s) as signs of neuronal damage. Lifespan was increased by 27% (21 ± 2.4 days) after one-day TGE, 34% (22 ± 1.2 days) after four-days TGE, and 26% (21 ± 1.4 days) after six-days TGE vs. control (16 ± 1.3 days). These experiments suggest that TGE in C. elegans has positive effects on life span and neuronal function, associated with mildly increased ROS-formation. From the perspective of metabolic memory, hormetic effects outweighed the detrimental effects of a HG environment.