Abstract. Wildfires can significantly impact air quality and human
health. However, little is known about how different fuel bed components
contribute to these impacts. This study investigates the air quality impacts
of duff and peat consumption during wildfires in the southeastern United States, with a focus on the differing contributions of fine particulate matter less
than 2.5 µm in size (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) to air
quality episodes associated with the four largest wildfire events in the
region during this century. The emissions of duff burning were estimated
based on a field measurement of a 2016 southern Appalachian fire. The
emissions from the burning of other fuels were obtained from the Fire
INventory from NCAR (FINN). The air quality impacts were simulated using a
three-dimensional regional air quality model. The results show the duff burning emitted PM2.5 comparable to the burning of the above-ground fuels. The
simulated surface PM2.5 concentrations due to duff burning increased by
61.3 % locally over a region approximately 300 km within the fire site and
by 21.3 % and 29.7 % in remote metro Atlanta and Charlotte during the 2016 southern Appalachian fires and by 131.9 % locally and by
17.7 % and 24.8 % in remote metro Orlando and Miami during the 2007 Okefenokee Fire. However, the simulated ozone impacts from the duff burning were negligible due to the small duff emission factors of ozone
precursors such as NOx. This study suggests the need to improve the
modeling of PM2.5 and the air quality, human health, and climate
impacts of wildfires in moist ecosystems by including duff burning in global
fire emission inventories.
Cyclones are widely used for separating particles from gas in energy production objects. The efficiency of conventional centrifugal air cleaning devices ranges from 85 to 90%, but the weakness of many cyclones is the low collection efficiency of particles less than 10 μm in diameter. The novelty of this work is the research of the channel-type treatment device, with few levels adapted for precipitation of fine particulate matter, acting by a centrifugal and filtration principle. Many factors have an impact on cyclone efficiency—humidity, temperature, gas (air) composition, airflow velocity and etc. Many scientists evaluated only the effect of origin and size of PM on cyclone efficiency. The effect of gas (air) composition and temperature, and humidity on the multi-channel cyclone-separator efficiency still demands contributions. Complex theoretical and experimental research on air flow parameters and the efficiency of a cylindrical eight-channel system with adjustable half-rings for removing fine-dispersive particles (<20 μm) was carried out. The impact of air humidity and temperature on air flow, and gaseous smoke components on the removal of wood ashes was analyzed. The dusty gas flow was regulated. During the experiment, the average velocity of the cyclone was 16 m/s, and the temperature was 20–50 °C. The current paper presents experimental research results of wood ash removal in an eight-channel cyclone and theoretical methodology for the calculation of airflow parameters and cyclone effectiveness.
Forkhead Box O 3 (FOXO3) genotype is strongly associated with human longevity and may be protective against neurodegeneration. Air pollution is a risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia. We aimed to study the individual and combined effects of FOXO3 and air pollution on cognitive function in a large prospective cohort with up to 14 years of follow-up. We measured cognitive function and impairment using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). We used tagging SNPs rs2253310, rs2802292, and rs4946936 to identify the FOXO3 gene, of which roughly half of the population had the longevity associated polymorphism. We matched annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations within 1 km^2 grid. We conducted cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses using multivariable linear and logistic regression models and generalized estimating equation. At baseline, carriers of the longevity associated homozygous minor alleles of FOXO3 SNPs had a higher MMSE score than the carriers of homozygous major alleles. In the longitudinal follow-up, carriers of FOXO3 homozygous minor alleles had lower odds of cognitive impairment compared to non-carriers. Higher PM2.5 was associated with a lower MMSE score and higher odds of cognitive impairment. The positive effects of FOXO3 were the strongest in females, older people, and residents in areas with lower air pollution.