alkali chloride
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Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (24) ◽  
pp. 8227
Jian Cheng ◽  
Min Xie ◽  
Li Xu ◽  
Lei Zhang ◽  
Xiaohan Ren

Elevated emissions of hydrogen chloride (HCl) from the combustion of biomass in utility boilers are a major issue because they can cause corrosion problems and deposit molten alkali chloride salts on boilers’ water tubes, resulting in further corrosion. Pyrolysis is a good pre-treatment for solving this problem. This work conducted pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of pulverized corn straw and lignite coal in a horizontal muffle furnace, with compositions typical of power plant combustion effluents (5% O2, 15% CO2, 80% N2) at different temperatures. Cl compounds were monitored in fuel, flue gas, and solid production of pyrolysis. The co-pyrolysis significantly affected Cl release from fuel. Cl release from corn straw into fuel gas was reduced during biomass co-pyrolysis with lignite. Co-pyrolysis had little influence on the release of organic Cl and KCl. Furthermore, at moderate-temperature pyrolysis, O2 promoted HCl release, when compared with pyrolysis under a N2 atmosphere.

Amith Kunhunni ◽  
Sridhar Kumar Kannam ◽  
Sarith P Sathian ◽  
Billy Dean Todd ◽  
Peter John Daivis

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (20) ◽  
pp. 6009
Ekaterina V. Kirillova ◽  
Victor P. Stepanov

Structural transformations in the adsorption layer caused by an electric potential are investigated using the experimental data on the capacitance of a double electric layer for a rhenium electrode in molten sodium, potassium and cesium chlorides at 1093 K. Likening the double electric layer to a flat capacitor, as well as the effective length of the shielding of the electrode charge and changes in the charge sign depending on the applied potential are estimated. It is found that near the minimum potential of the capacitance curve, the shielding length decreases proportionally to the square of the potential due to the deformation of the double layer. The deformation reaches critical values at the potentials of −0.65, −0.38 and −0.40 V for the Re|NaCl, Re|KCl and Re|CsCl systems respectively, and decreases sharply at more positive potentials. The analysis of the dependence of the charge density on the electrode revealed the effect of shielding of potential-induced rhenium cations by salt phase anions. The strong Raman-active Re–Cl stretching mode was observed at 292 cm−1. This can be explained by the transfer of anions across the interface resulting in the formation of ordered layers of ion associations (possibly, ReXn(n − 1)−) on a positively charged surface.

Membranes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (7) ◽  
pp. 480
V. María Barragán

Thermocells are non-isothermal electrochemical cells used to convert thermal energy into electricity. In a thermocell, together with the ion flux, heat is also transferred, which can reduce the temperature gradient and thus the delivered electric current. A charged membrane used as a separating barrier in the electrolyte liquid could reduce this problem. Therefore, the use of ion-exchange membranes has been suggested as an alternative in terms of thermoelectricity because of their high Seebeck coefficient. Ion transfer occurs not only at the liquid solution but also at the solid membrane when a temperature gradient is imposed. Thus, the electric current delivered by the thermocell will also be highly dependent on the membrane system properties. In this work, a polymeric membrane-based thermocell with 1:1 alkali chloride electrolytes and reversible Ag|AgCl electrodes at different temperatures is studied. This work focuses on the experimental relation between the short-circuit current density and the temperature difference. Short-circuit current is the maximum electric current supplied by a thermocell and is directly related to the maximum output electrical power. It can therefore provide valuable information on the thermocell efficiency. The effect of the membrane, electrolyte nature and hydrodynamic conditions is analysed from an experimental point of view.

2021 ◽  
Vol 168 (4) ◽  
pp. 046513
V. A. Volkovich ◽  
A. A. Ryzhov ◽  
A. B. Ivanov ◽  
A. V. Shchetinskiy ◽  
D. S. Maltsev

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