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2022 ◽  
Megan Ames ◽  
Christina Lauren Robillard ◽  
Brianna Turner ◽  
Mauricio Garcia-Barrera ◽  
Jonathan Rush ◽  

Although physical activity declined with social distancing measures and stay-at-home orders during the COVID-19 pandemic, youth who engaged in more physical activity experienced fewer mental health problems. If and how physical activity maintained its protective role throughout the ongoing pandemic remains unclear. This study models associations between three types of physical activity (indoor, outdoor, with parents), affect regulation, and anxious and depressive symptoms in two adolescent samples (W1: Summer 2020; W2: Winter 2020/21).

2022 ◽  
Camille Danne ◽  
Chloe Michaudel ◽  
Jurate Skerniskyte ◽  
Julien Planchais ◽  
Aurelie Magniez ◽  

Objectives: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results from a combination of genetic predisposition, dysbiosis of the gut microbiota and environmental factors, leading to alterations in the gastrointestinal immune response and chronic inflammation. Caspase recruitment domain 9 (Card9), one of the IBD susceptibility genes, has been shown to protect against intestinal inflammation and fungal infection. However, the cell types and mechanisms involved in the CARD9 protective role against inflammation remain unknown. Design: We used dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced and adoptive transfer colitis models in total and conditional CARD9 knock-out mice to uncover which cell types play a role in the CARD9 protective phenotype. The impact of Card9 deletion on neutrophil function was assessed by an in vivo model of fungal infection and various functional assays, including endpoint dilution assay, apoptosis assay by flow cytometry, proteomics and real time bioenergetic profile analysis (Seahorse). Results: Lymphocytes are not intrinsically involved in the CARD9 protective role against colitis. CARD9 expression in neutrophils, but not in epithelial or CD11c+ cells, protects against DSS-induced colitis. In the absence of CARD9, mitochondrial dysfunction in neutrophils leads to their premature death through apoptosis, especially in oxidative environment. The decrease of fonctional neutrophils in tissues could explain the impaired containment of fungi and increased susceptibility to intestinal inflammation. Conclusion: These results provide new insight into the role of CARD9 in neutrophil mitochondrial function and its involvement in intestinal inflammation, paving the way for new therapeutic strategies targeting neutrophils.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 502
Sergio Davinelli ◽  
Luciano Saso ◽  
Floriana D’Angeli ◽  
Vittorio Calabrese ◽  
Mariano Intrieri ◽  

Astaxanthin (AST) is a dietary xanthophyll predominantly found in marine organisms and seafood. Due to its unique molecular features, AST has an excellent antioxidant activity with a wide range of applications in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries. In the past decade, mounting evidence has suggested a protective role for AST against a wide range of diseases where oxidative stress and inflammation participate in a self-perpetuating cycle. Here, we review the underlying molecular mechanisms by which AST regulates two relevant redox-sensitive transcription factors, such as nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). Nrf2 is a cellular sensor of electrophilic stress that coordinates the expression of a battery of defensive genes encoding antioxidant proteins and detoxifying enzymes. Likewise, NF-κB acts as a mediator of cellular stress and induces the expression of various pro-inflammatory genes, including those encoding cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules. The effects of AST on the crosstalk between these transcription factors have also been discussed. Besides this, we summarize the current clinical studies elucidating how AST may alleviate the etiopathogenesis of oxidative stress and inflammation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Arzu Ulu ◽  
Jalene V. Velazquez ◽  
Abigail Burr ◽  
Stefanie N. Sveiven ◽  
Jun Yang ◽  

In agriculture industries, workers are at increased risk for developing pulmonary diseases due to inhalation of agricultural dusts, particularly when working in enclosed confinement facilities. Agricultural dusts inhalation leads to unresolved airway inflammation that precedes the development and progression of lung disease. We have previously shown beneficial effects of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA) DHA in protecting against the negative inflammatory effects of repetitive dust exposure in the lung. Dietary manipulation of pulmonary disease risk is an attractive and timely approach given the contribution of an increased ω-6 to ω-3 PUFA ratio to low grade inflammation and chronic disease in the Western diet. To prevent any confounding factors that comes with dietary supplementation of ω-3 PUFA (different sources, purity, dose, and duration), we employed a Fat-1 transgenic mouse model that convert ω-6 PUFA to ω-3 PUFA, leading to a tissue ω-6 to ω-3 PUFA ratio of approximately 1:1. Building on our initial findings, we hypothesized that attaining elevated tissue levels of ω-3 PUFA would attenuate agricultural dust-induced lung inflammation and its resolution. To test this hypothesis, we compared wild-type (WT) and Fat-1 transgenic mice in their response to aqueous extracts of agricultural dust (DE). We also used a soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor (sEH) to potentiate the effects of ω-3 PUFA, since sEH inhibitors have been shown to stabilize the anti-inflammatory P450 metabolites derived from both ω-3 and ω-6 PUFA and promote generation of specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators from ω-3 PUFA. Over a three-week period, mice were exposed to a total of 15 intranasal instillations of DE obtained from swine confinement buildings in the Midwest. We observed genotype and sex-specific differences between the WT vs. Fat-1 transgenic mice in response to repetitive dust exposure, where three-way ANOVA revealed significant main effects of treatment, genotype, and sex. Also, Fat-1 transgenic mice displayed reduced lymphoid aggregates in the lung following DE exposure as compared to WT animals exposed to DE, suggesting improved resilience to the DE-induced inflammatory effects. Overall, our data implicate a protective role of ω-3 FA in the lung following repetitive dust exposure.

Blood ◽  
2022 ◽  
Sylvie Cointe ◽  
Loris Vallier ◽  
Pierre Esnault ◽  
Mathilde Dacos ◽  
Amandine Bonifay ◽  

Microvesicles (MVs) have previously been shown to exert profibrinolytic capacity, which is increased in patients with septic shock (SS) with a favorable outcome. We therefore hypothesized that the plasmin generation capacity (PGC) could confer to MVs a protective effect supported by their capacity to lyse a thrombus, and we investigated the mechanisms involved. Using a MV-PGC kinetic assay, ELISA and flow cytometry, we found that granulocyte MVs (Gran-MVs) from SS patients display a heterogeneous PGC profile driven by the uPA (urokinase)/uPAR system. In vitro, these MVs lyse a thrombus according to their MV-PGC levels in a uPA/uPAR-dependent manner, as shown in a fluorescent clot lysis test and a lysis front retraction assay. Fibrinolytic activators conveyed by MVs contribute to approximately 30% of the plasma plasminogenolytic capacity of SS patients. In a murine model of SS, the injection of high PGC Gran-MVs significantly improved mouse survival and reduced the number of thrombi in vital organs. This was associated with a modification of the mouse coagulation and fibrinolysis properties toward a more fibrinolytic profile. Interestingly, mouse survival was not improved when soluble uPA was injected. Finally, using a multiplex array on plasma from SS patients, we found that neutrophil elastase correlates with the effect of high-PGC-capacity plasma and modulates the Gran-MV plasmin generation capacity by cleaving uPA-PAI-1 complexes. In conclusion, we show that high PGC level displayed by Gran-MVs reduce thrombus formation and improve survival conferring to Gran-MVs a protective role in a murine model of sepsis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Dinggui Lu ◽  
Jihua Wei ◽  
Jian Chen ◽  
Jingjie Zhao ◽  
Jiajia Wang ◽  

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease characterized by articular cartilage and/or chondrocyte destruction, and although it has long been considered as a primary disease, the importance of meniscus endothelial cell modulation in the subchondral microenvironment has recently drawn attention. Previous studies have shown that apelin could potentially inhibit cellular apoptosis; however, it remains unclear whether apelin could play a protective role in protecting the endothelium in the OA meniscus. In this study, with the advantages of single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data, in combination with flow cytometry, we identified two endothelial subclusters in the meniscus, featured by high expression of Homeobox A13 (HOXA13) and Ras Protein-Specific Guanine Nucleotide Releasing Factor 2 (RASGRF2), respectively. Compared with control patients, both subclusters decreased in absolute cell numbers and exhibited downregulated APJ endogenous ligand (APLN, coding for apelin) and upregulated apelin receptor (APLNR, coding apelin receptor). Furthermore, we confirmed that in OA, decreased endothelial cell numbers, including both subclusters, were related to intrinsic apoptosis factors: one more relevant to caspase 3 (CASP3) and the other to BH3-Interacting Domain Death agonist (BID). In vitro culturing of meniscal endothelial cells purified from patients proved that apelin could significantly inhibit apoptosis by downregulating these two factors in endothelial cell subclusters, suggesting that apelin could potentially serve as a therapeutic target for patients with OA.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 27
Giovanni Cimmino ◽  
Stefano Conte ◽  
Mariarosaria Morello ◽  
Grazia Pellegrino ◽  
Laura Marra ◽  

Background: Thrombosis with cardiovascular involvement is a crucial complication in COVID-19 infection. COVID-19 infects the host by the angiotensin converting enzyme-2 receptor (ACE2r), which is expressed in endothelial cells too. Thus, COVID-related thrombotic events might be due to endothelial dysfunction. IL-6 is one of the main cytokines involved in the COVID-19 inflammatory storm. Some evidence indicates that Vitamin D (VitD) has a protective role in COVID-19 patients, but the molecular mechanisms involved are still debated. Thus, we investigated the effect of VitD on Tissue Factor and adhesion molecules (CAMs) in IL-6-stimulated endothelial cells (HUVEC). Moreover, we evaluated levels of the ACE2r gene and proteins. Finally, we studied the modulation of NF-kB and STAT3 pathways. Methods: HUVEC cultivated in VitD-enriched medium were stimulated with IL-6 (0.5 ng/mL). The TF gene (RT-PCR), protein (Western blot), surface expression (FACS) and procoagulant activity (FXa generation assay) were measured. Similarly, CAMs soluble values (ELISA) and ACE2r (RT-PCR and Western blot) levels were assessed. NF-kB and STAT3 modulation (Western blot) were also investigated. Results: VitD significantly reduced TF expression at both gene and protein levels as well as TF-procoagulant activity in IL-6-treated HUVEC. Similar effects were observed for CAMs and ACE2r expression. IL-6 modulates these effects by regulating NF-κB and STAT3 pathways. Conclusions: IL-6 induces endothelial dysfunction with TF and CAMs expression via upregulation of ACE2r. VitD prevented these IL-6 deleterious effects. Thus, it might be speculated that this is one of the hypothetical mechanism(s) by which VitD exerts its beneficial effects in COVID-19 infection.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 317
Anna Regalia ◽  
Matteo Benedetti ◽  
Silvia Malvica ◽  
Carlo Alfieri ◽  
Mariarosaria Campise ◽  

Background: Recently the protective role of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) against viral infections has been hypothesized. We evaluated the association between vitamin D status and SARS-CoV-2 infection susceptibility and severity in a cohort of kidney transplanted patients (KTxp). Methods: A total of 61 KTxp with SARS-CoV-2 infection (COV+) were matched with 122 healthy KTxp controls (COV−). Main biochemical parameters at 1, 6, and 12 months before SARS-CoV-2 infection were recorded. Vitamin D status was considered as the mean of two 25(OH)D measures obtained 6 ± 2 months apart during the last year. The severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection was based on the need for hospitalization (HOSP+) and death (D+). Results: 25(OH)D levels were lower in COV+ than in controls [19(12–26) vs. 23(17–31) ng/mL, p = 0.01]. No differences among the other biochemical parameters were found. The SARS-CoV-2 infection discriminative power of 25(OH)D was evaluated by ROC-curve (AUC 0.61, 95% CI 0.5–0.7, p = 0.01). 25(OH)D was not significantly different between HOSP+ and HOSP− [17(8–25) vs. 20(15–26) ng/mL, p = 0.19] and between D+ and D− [14(6–23) vs. 20(14–26) ng/mL, p = 0.22] and had no significant correlation with disease length. Conclusions: During the year preceding the infection, 25(OH)D levels were lower in COV+ KTxp in comparison with controls matched for demographic features and comorbidities. No significant association between vitamin D status and SARS-CoV-2 infection related outcomes was found.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Neda Ezzeddin ◽  
Naser Kalantari ◽  
Zahra Veysi

Purpose Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected many different aspects of people’s lives around the world, including household food security. This study aims to investigate the food security status and its determinants, with emphasis on perceived social support among the Iranian population during the epidemic.. Design/methodology/approach This cross-sectional study was conducted among 2,871 Iranian adults by social media in all provinces of the country. Demographic and socioeconomic information, household food security status and perceived social support status were assessed by the validated questionnaires. Data was analyzed by statistical package for the social sciences version 22.0, with one-way ANOVA, Chi-square and multinomial logistic regression tests. Findings The prevalence of food security among the studied population was 55.2%. The results indicated that perceived social support plays a protective role on food security [odds ratio (OR) = 1.07, confidence interval (CI) = 1.06, 1.09, P-value < 0.001]. Reduced income during the epidemic [OR = 0.29, CI = 0.17, 0.47, P-value < 0.001] and presence of an old person (>65 years old) in the household [OR = 1.72, CI = 1.14, 2.60, P-value < 0.05], were significantly higher among moderate to severe food insecure group than food-secure group. More monthly income [OR = 0.28, CI = 0.13, 0.57, P-value < 0.001] and homeownership [OR = 1.83, CI = 1.22, 2.75, P-value < 0.05] were also predictors of food security status. Originality/value The development of supportive strategies which act immediately can protect vulnerable people against the consequences of the epidemic, including food insecurity. Long-term planning should also be considered to improve society’s resistance against such disasters.

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