Challenges and recent developments in supply and value chains of electric vehicle batteries: A sustainability perspective

2022 ◽  
Vol 180 ◽  
pp. 106144
Mohammad Ali Rajaeifar ◽  
Pezhman Ghadimi ◽  
Marco Raugei ◽  
Yufeng Wu ◽  
Oliver Heidrich
2013 ◽  
Vol 33 (3) ◽  
pp. 575-588 ◽  
Robert Bramley ◽  
Sam Trengove

A brief account of the present status of Precision Agriculture (PA) in Australia is presented, and areas of opportunity in the grains, sugar and wine industries are identified. In particular, these relate to the use of spatially-distributed experimentation to fine-tune management so as to achieve production efficiencies, reduced risk of environmental impact and enhanced food security, and the management of crop quality through selective harvesting and product streaming. The latter may be an important avenue by which farmers can take a more active role in the off-farm part of agricultural value chains. The important role of grower groups in facilitating PA adoption is also discussed.

Water Policy ◽  
2017 ◽  
Vol 20 (3) ◽  
pp. 461-474 ◽  
Soumya Balasubramanya ◽  
Theodore M. Horbulyk

Abstract This paper provides an overview of policy responses to arsenic in groundwater in rural Bangladesh to assess their role and potential effectiveness in reducing exposure. With 97% of the country consuming groundwater for drinking, there is a continuing crisis of tens of millions of people exposed to elevated levels of arsenic. An examination of the number of people protected through two major remediation efforts suggests that recent progress may not be sufficient to keep up with the increasing population or to resolve the crisis during this century. Recent developments in remedial options are examined to identify their potential role in an evolving policy and research agenda. There appears to be growing agreement about future research and policy responses that can scale remedial options and make them widely accessible. These include: (1) the need for a reliable and affordable programme of arsenic testing and retesting; (2) attention to risks from other soluble contaminants and pathogens; (3) explicit priority setting across locations, time and to address fairness; and (4) development of value chains to ensure remedial options are supported over time.

Bin Peng ◽  
Yubo Zhang ◽  
Pengcheng Zhang ◽  
Hanif Ullah

Background: Heat pump air conditioning technology has broad application prospects and high market value in the field of electric automobiles owing to its increasing performance and energy saving. Pure electric vehicles require high-energy consumption at low temperatures, which seriously affects the popularity of electric vehicles with a heat pump air conditioning system. Objective: The aim of this research is to describe the recent developments in the study of the heat pump air conditioning system for electric vehicles. Methods: This paper summarizes the research work of scholars published worldwide based on the electric vehicle heat pump air conditioning system, premised on lately published patents and journal articles. Starting from the components of the air conditioning system, focus on the research results and development trends that have been achieved in this field. Results: The new technology path and pattern of the electrical vehicle heat pump air conditioning system provide methods and suggestions for future growth, put forward by the current development situation. Conclusion: The latest progress of the electric vehicle heat pump air conditioning system has been summarized and prospected. There are still some problems and technical bottlenecks in heat pump air conditioning system. It is of great significance to improve the environmental adaptability of electric vehicles and optimize the reasonable heat pump air conditioning system for the endurance of electric vehicles.

2015 ◽  
Vol 11 (3/4) ◽  
pp. 319-339 ◽  
Joonkoo Lee ◽  
Gary Gereffi

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to introduce the global value chain (GVC) approach to understand the relationship between multinational enterprises (MNEs) and the changing patterns of global trade, investment and production, and its impact on economic and social upgrading. It aims to illuminate how GVCs can advance our understanding about MNEs and rising power (RP) firms and their impact on economic and social upgrading in fragmented and dispersed global production systems. Design/methodology/approach – The paper reviews the GVC literature focusing on two conceptual elements of the GVC approach, governance and upgrading, and highlights three key recent developments in GVCs: concentration, regionalization and synergistic governance. Findings – The paper underscores the complicated role of GVCs in shaping economic and social upgrading for emerging economies, RP firms and developing country firms in general. Rising geographic and organizational concentration in GVCs leads to the uneven distribution of upgrading opportunities in favor of RP firms, and yet economic upgrading may be elusive even for the most established suppliers because of power asymmetry with global buyers. Shifting end markets and the regionalization of value chains can benefit RP firms by presenting alternative markets for upgrading. Yet, without further upgrading, such benefits may be achieved at the expense of social downgrading. Finally, the ineffectiveness of private standards to achieve social upgrading has led to calls for synergistic governance through the cooperation of private, public and social actors, both global and local. Originality/value – The paper illuminates how the GVC approach and its key concepts can contribute to the critical international business and RP firms literature by examining the latest dynamics in GVCs and their impacts on economic and social development in developing countries.

C. Colliex ◽  
P. Trebbia

The physical foundations for the use of electron energy loss spectroscopy towards analytical purposes, seem now rather well established and have been extensively discussed through recent publications. In this brief review we intend only to mention most recent developments in this field, which became available to our knowledge. We derive also some lines of discussion to define more clearly the limits of this analytical technique in materials science problems.The spectral information carried in both low ( 0<ΔE<100eV ) and high ( >100eV ) energy regions of the loss spectrum, is capable to provide quantitative results. Spectrometers have therefore been designed to work with all kinds of electron microscopes and to cover large energy ranges for the detection of inelastically scattered electrons (for instance the L-edge of molybdenum at 2500eV has been measured by van Zuylen with primary electrons of 80 kV). It is rather easy to fix a post-specimen magnetic optics on a STEM, but Crewe has recently underlined that great care should be devoted to optimize the collecting power and the energy resolution of the whole system.

Kent McDonald

At the light microscope level the recent developments and interest in antibody technology have permitted the localization of certain non-microtubule proteins within the mitotic spindle, e.g., calmodulin, actin, intermediate filaments, protein kinases and various microtubule associated proteins. Also, the use of fluorescent probes like chlorotetracycline suggest the presence of membranes in the spindle. Localization of non-microtubule structures in the spindle at the EM level has been less rewarding. Some mitosis researchers, e.g., Rarer, have maintained that actin is involved in mitosis movements though the bulk of evidence argues against this interpretation. Others suggest that a microtrabecular network such as found in chromatophore granule movement might be a possible force generator but there is little evidence for or against this view. At the level of regulation of spindle function, Harris and more recently Hepler have argued for the importance of studying spindle membranes. Hepler also believes that membranes might play a structural or mechanical role in moving chromosomes.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document