production systems
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2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 541-560
Author(s):  
Silvia Cristina Maia Olimpio ◽  
◽  
Sergio Castro Gomes ◽  
Antônio Cordeiro de Santana ◽  
◽  
...  

The aim of this study was to analyze the production patterns present in rural properties producing cattle in the micro-regions that make up the state of Pará. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was applied to identify the patterns, and these data are used to evaluate correlation between the heterogeneity of rural properties and the environmental impact on the identified patterns. The theoretical contribution is based on discussions on global impacts of food production and environmental sustainability and the impacts of livestock production systems in Brazil and the Amazon. Survey data were taken from the 2017 Agricultural Census, available for the 144 municipalities in the state, and pooled into 22 micro-regions. Three patterns of rural properties were identified: the first related to conservation management practices and called transition management; the second highlights aspects associated with information technology and communication (ICT) and productivity called technical productive efficiency; the third indicates the importance of social organization and access to information called social participation. With these patterns, it was possible to develop the Traditional Performance Indicator (TPI), in which the micro-regions of São Félix do Xingu, Itaituba and Conceição do Araguaia were those with the highest values of this indicator, water protection practices are present in the properties, however, in precarious conditions, and conservation practices are rarely used. The correlation between heterogeneity, measured by the size of pasture area in each microregion, and the TPI is positive, strong and significant. In this transition context, public policies are essential to provide access to infrastructure, credit and good animal health and biotechnology practices


2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
M. Usman ◽  
H. M. Ishaq ◽  
A. Mahmud ◽  
E. Bughio ◽  
M. Azhar ◽  
...  

Abstract The present trial explained the effect of alternative production systems on growth, morphometric and carcass traits of four different chicken genotypes. The second generation of two genotypes RNN (Rhode Island Red × Naked Neck) and BNN (Black Australorp × Naked Neck) obtained by two self-crosses (RNN × RNN = RR and BNN × BNN = BB) and two reciprocal crosses (RNN × BNN = RB and BNN × RNN = BR) were evaluated in three alternative production systems (conventional cages, enriched cages, and aviary). At the 6th week of age after sexing, a total of 600 birds, comprising 150 from each crossbred with a total of 300 pullets and 300 cockerels were divided into conventional cages, enriched cages, and aviary systems having 200 birds in each.Birds were organized into 3×4 factorial arrangements under Completely Randomized Design (3 production systems × 4 genotypes × 2 sexes × 25 birds = 600 birds). Regarding genotypes, RB and BR males showed higher (p < 0.01) carcass yield, drumstick weight, breast weight, and thigh weight than BB and RR genotypes. Females of BR genotype showed higher (p < 0.01) breast weight, thigh weight and drumstick weight. As far as production systems are concerned, higher (p < 0.01) liver weight, heart weight, breast weight, intestinal weight, drumstick weight, and thigh weight were observed in the males reared in enriched cages compared with conventional cages and aviary system. Females reared in enriched cages showed higher (p < 0.01) heart weight, breast weight, intestinal weight, drumstick weight, and thigh weight when compared with those reared in conventional cages and aviary. It is concluded that chickens (both sexes) of BR and RB genotypes had better morphological measurements and carcass traits than those of RR and BB genotype chickens. Among alternative production systems, chickens reared in enriched cages had better traits than those of reared in conventional cages and aviary during the growing phase.


2022 ◽  
Vol 32 (1) ◽  
pp. 21-27
Author(s):  
Osama Mohawesh ◽  
Ammar Albalasmeh ◽  
Sanjit Deb ◽  
Sukhbir Singh ◽  
Catherine Simpson ◽  
...  

Colored shading nets have been increasingly studied in semi-arid crop production systems, primarily because of their ability to reduce solar radiation with the attendant reductions in air, plant, and soil temperatures. However, there is a paucity of research concerning the impact of colored shading nets on various crops grown under semi-arid environments, particularly the sweet pepper (Capsicum annum) production system. This study aimed to investigate the effects of three colored shading net treatments (i.e., white, green, and black shading nets with 50% shading intensity and control with unshaded conditions) on the growth and instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE) of sweet pepper. The results showed that all colored shading nets exhibited significantly lower daytime air temperatures and light intensity (22 to 28 °C and 9992 lx, respectively) compared with the control (32 to 37 °C and 24,973 lx, respectively). There were significant differences in sweet pepper growth performance among treatments, including plant height, shoot dry weight, leaf area, leaf chlorophyll content, and vitamin C in ripened fruit. The enhanced photosynthetic rates were observed in sweet pepper plants under the colored shading nets compared with control plants. WUE increased among the colored shading net treatments in the following order: control ≤ white < black < green. Overall, the application of green and black shading nets to sweet pepper production systems under semi-arid environments significantly enhanced plant growth responses and WUE.


HortScience ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 57 (2) ◽  
pp. 239-246
Author(s):  
Krishna Nemali

Modern greenhouses are intensive farming systems designed to achieve high efficiency and productivity. Plants are produced year-round in greenhouses by maintaining the environment at or near optimum levels regardless of extreme weather conditions. Many scientific discoveries and technological advancements that happened in the past two centuries paved the way for current state-of-the-art greenhouses. These include, but are not limited to, advancements in climate-specific structural designs and glazing materials, and temperature control, artificial lighting, and hydroponic production systems. Greenhouse structures can be broadly grouped into four distinct designs, including tall Venlo greenhouses of the Netherlands, passive solar greenhouses of China, low-cost Parral greenhouses of the Mediterranean region, and gutter-connected polyethylene houses of India and African countries. These designs were developed to suit local climatic conditions and maximize the return on investment. Although glass and rigid plastic options are available for glazing, the development of low-cost and lightweight plastic glazing materials (e.g., polyethylene) enabled widespread growth of the greenhouse industry in the developing world. For temperate regions, supplemental lighting technology is crucial for year-round production. This heavily relies on advancements in electro-lighting during the 19th and 20th centuries. The development of hydroponic production systems for the controlled delivery of nutrients further enhanced crop productivity. This article addresses important historical events, scientific discoveries, and technological improvements related to advancements in these areas.


2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-24
Author(s):  
Birgit Vogel-Heuser ◽  
Eva-Maria Neumann ◽  
Juliane Fischer

automated Production Systems (aPS) are highly complex, mechatronic systems that usually have to operate reliably for many decades. Standardization and reuse of control software modules is a core prerequisite to achieve the required system quality in increasingly shorter development cycles. However, industrial case studies in aPS show that many aPS companies still struggle with strategically reusing software. This paper proposes a metric-based approach to objectively measure the m aturity of i ndustrial IEC 61131-based co ntrol s oftwar e in aPS (MICOSE4aPS) to identify potential weaknesses and quality issues hampering systematic reuse. Module developers in the machine and plant manufacturing industry can directly benefit as the metric calculation is integrated into the software engineering workflow. An in-depth industrial evaluation in a top-ranked machine manufacturing company in food packaging and an expert evaluation with different companies confirmed the benefit of efficiently managing the quality of control software.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Carole Balthazar ◽  
David L. Joly ◽  
Martin Filion

Among the oldest domesticated crops, cannabis plants (Cannabis sativa L., marijuana and hemp) have been used to produce food, fiber, and drugs for thousands of years. With the ongoing legalization of cannabis in several jurisdictions worldwide, a new high-value market is emerging for the supply of marijuana and hemp products. This creates unprecedented challenges to achieve better yields and environmental sustainability, while lowering production costs. In this review, we discuss the opportunities and challenges pertaining to the use of beneficial Pseudomonas spp. bacteria as crop inoculants to improve productivity. The prevalence and diversity of naturally occurring Pseudomonas strains within the cannabis microbiome is overviewed, followed by their potential mechanisms involved in plant growth promotion and tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Emphasis is placed on specific aspects relevant for hemp and marijuana crops in various production systems. Finally, factors likely to influence inoculant efficacy are provided, along with strategies to identify promising strains, overcome commercialization bottlenecks, and design adapted formulations. This work aims at supporting the development of the cannabis industry in a sustainable way, by exploiting the many beneficial attributes of Pseudomonas spp.


Author(s):  
K.P. Aiswarya V. Dev ◽  
M. Rafeekher ◽  
S. Sarada

Background: Commercial cultivation of bitter gourd is affected by biotic stresses like mosaic disease, fusarium wilt and root-knot nematode as well as abiotic stress like drought. Grafting with resistant rootstocks can be a tool to control these problems. In vegetable production, grafting is exploited commercially in many parts of the world. The cultivated area of grafted solanaceae and cucubitaceae plants has increased tremendously in recent years because of the advantages of grafted plants. Commercial use of vegetable grafting is a relatively recent innovation in India and scientific information on grafting in bittergourd is meager. In this context, identification of suitable rootstocks and standardization of grafting techniques that do not have adverse effect on yield and fruit quality not only lay foundation for further evaluation on tolerance to different biotic and abiotic stresses but also enhance the area and production of bitter gourd especially in sustainable production systems. Methods: Grafting in bitter gourd was carried out with three grafting methods such as hole insertion grafting, one cotyledon grafting and cleft grafting using growth regulators viz., alar and CCC to control height of rootstocks in order to identify suitable method, growth regulator and its concentration. The grafting experiment was done independently to four cucurbitaceous rootstocks viz., sponge gourd, pumpkin, bottle gourd and bitter gourd using bittergourd var. Preethi as scion. Height and diameter of the rootstocks before grafting were recorded and then the growth regulators alar and CCC each at 10 mgL-1 and 50 mgL-1 along with distilled water as control were sprayed on rootstocks in order to prevent the lodging of the root stocks and then grafted using different methods. Days taken for graft union and percentage success were also evaluated after grafting. Result: Our study of grafting bitter gourd scion into four cucurbitaceous rootstocks utilizing three methods and two growth regulators at two different concentration along with control exhibited significant difference in graft success among the methods as well as concentration of growth regulator in all four experiments. This work can be further utilized for imparting resistance against abiotic and biotic stresses in bitter gourd by selecting suitable rootstocks.


2022 ◽  
Vol 5 ◽  
Author(s):  
Dyutiman Choudhary ◽  
Kamal Banskota ◽  
Narayan Prasad Khanal ◽  
Andrew James McDonald ◽  
Timothy J. Krupnik ◽  
...  

With economic development agricultural systems in the Global South transform from subsistence farming to higher productivity with market integration and increase in rural income and food security. In Nepal, agriculture continues to provide livelihoods for two-thirds of the predominantly rural population, largely at a subsistence-level. Rice is the staple food and covers the largest land area but yields are relatively low, with an annual import bill of USD 300 Million. The study uses data from 310 households from two distinct rice producing areas to assess farmers' rice production systems. It analyses farmers' rice production efficiency using a stochastic frontier production function to suggest how to advance the transformation of Nepal's rice sector. Our study finds that while agriculture related services such as access to inputs, information, markets, irrigation, and finance have generally improved, paddy farmers are only able to achieve 76% of potential output. Small/marginal farms were relatively less efficient than medium and large farms. Women farmers faced unequal access to technologies and have lower productivity than men. Unavailability of labor and capital, land fragmentation, and the lack of consistent access to seed and fertilizers contribute to reduced efficiency. Public and private sector investments are needed to enhance the timely and adequate access to quality seeds, fertilizers, processing facilities, and equipment services. Adopting a market systems approach through cooperative farming, targeted delivery of extension services, and linkages with rice millers can promote inclusive growth and improve rice food security in Nepal.


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