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2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-18
James Edwards ◽  
Uzi Vishkin

Boolean satisfiability (SAT) is an important performance-hungry problem with applications in many problem domains. However, most work on parallelizing SAT solvers has focused on coarse-grained, mostly embarrassing, parallelism. Here, we study fine-grained parallelism that can speed up existing sequential SAT solvers, which all happen to be of the so-called Conflict-Directed Clause Learning variety. We show the potential for speedups of up to 382× across a variety of problem instances. We hope that these results will stimulate future research, particularly with respect to a computer architecture open problem we present.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (4) ◽  
pp. 63-83
Inderjeet Kaur ◽  
Diptanshu Gaur ◽  
Ashwani Kumar ◽  
Fatmah Mohmmad H. Alatawi

Netnography has emerged as the dominant social media research that allows researchers to understand and assimilate available knowledge for practical insights. However, limited awareness inhibits its development. This systematic literature review attempts to understand the evolution of netnography under the research domain to promote its usage and determine future research directions. The study revealed four broad clusters of the literature based on their prevalence: consumer experience and behaviour, phenomena and events, social media, and digital government. The study also highlights the limited development of new-age phenomena such as brand hate, cyber tourism, and special interest tourism. The study contributes to the domain of netnography in two ways: first by providing a thematic classification of the studies conducted in the decade of 2009-21 and second by suggesting potential future research directions, including scientific inquiry on the new-age phenomena blooming due to high internet penetration.

Akanksha Mathur ◽  
Prof. C. P. Gupta ◽  

Online propagation of untrue information has been and is becoming an increasing problem. Understanding and modeling the diffusion of information on Online Social Networks (OSN's) of voluminous data is the prime concern. The paper provides the history of the epidemic spread and its analogy with untrue information. This paper provides a review of untrue information on online social networks and methods of detection of untrue information based on epidemiological models. Open research challenges and potential future research directions are also highlighted. The paper aimed at aiding research for the identification of untrue information on OSNs.

2021 ◽  
Abigail V Shaw ◽  
David GW Holmes ◽  
Victoria Jansen ◽  
Christy L Fowler ◽  
Justin CR Wormald ◽  

Abstract Hand surgery services had to rapidly adapt to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The aim of the Reconstructive Surgery Trials Network #RSTNCOVID hand surgery survey was to document the changes made in the United Kingdom and Europe and consider which might persist.A survey developed by the Reconstructive Surgery Trials Network, in association with the British Association of Hand Therapists, was distributed to hand surgery units across the UK and Europe after the first wave of COVID-19. It was completed by one consultant hand surgeon at each of the 44 units that responded.Adult and paediatric trauma was maintained but elective services stopped. Consultations were increasingly virtual and surgery was more likely to be under local anaesthetic and in a lower resource setting.Many of the changes are viewed as being beneficial. However, it is important to establish that they are clinically and cost effective. These survey results will help prioritise and support future research initiatives.

2021 ◽  
Shaylyn Kress ◽  
Josh Neudorf ◽  
Chelsea Ekstrand ◽  
Ron Borowsky

In the two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) task, the target stimulus is presented very briefly, and the participants must choose between two options as to which was the presented target. Some past research (Grossi et al., 2009; Haro et al., 2019) has assumed that the 2AFC word identification task isolates orthographic effects, despite orthographic, semantic, and phonological differences between the alternative options. If so, performance should not differ between word target/nonword foil pairs and British/American word pairs, the latter of which only differ orthographically. In Experiment 1, accuracy and sensitivity were higher during word/nonword trials than British/American trials when participants stated their response was not a guess, demonstrating that phonological/semantic processing contributes to 2AFC performance. In Experiment 2, target visibility was manipulated by increasing the contrast between target and mask for half the trials. Experiment 2 showed that target visibility did not interact with pair type on reaction time, which suggests phonological/semantic processing did not result in feedback to orthographic encoding in this task. This study demonstrates the influence of phonological/semantic processing on word perceptual identification, and shows that 2AFC word identification does not isolate orthographic effects when word/nonword pairs are used, but using British/American word pairs provides a method for doing so. Implications for models and future research are discussed.

Dayana Barker ◽  
Owen D. Seeman ◽  
Stephen C. Barker

The largely unique fauna of ticks in Australia and Papua New Guinea (PNG) has been studied for 250 years. Here, we briefly review the early stages of tick taxonomy in the region, then focus on the activities of five people who contributed much to our knowledge of ticks in Australasia during the second half of the 20th century: F.H.S Roberts, David H. Kemp, Douglas E. Moorhouse, Nixon Wilson and Harry Hoogstraal. We provide biographical notes on each and collated publication lists for Roberts, Kemp and Moorhouse. We recognize three eras of tick taxonomy in Australia. First, an era that we refer to as “colonial tick taxonomy”, where ticks were sent from the European colonies to taxonomists in Europe. Second, a brief but significant era that we refer to as “endemic tick taxonomy” defined by the works of F.H.S. Roberts. Thirdly, a final phase of “colonial taxonomy” where ticks were described by workers in the USA. In PNG there has been no phase of endemic tick taxonomy and, while Australian workers are once again describing new tick species, in PNG the USA continues to make the most significant contributions. Through this work, we now see Australasia as one of the “theatres of evolution” of Bothriocroton and Archaeocroton, the Amblyomma-like ticks without eyes. We briefly discuss the current hypotheses for the theatre of evolution of the Ixodida, consider the 22 genus and subgenus-level entities of the Prostriata (Ixodinae) as provisional biological entities, and provide observations on tick phylogenetics and future research. Finally, we outline additional genetic evidence, from a recent whole-transcriptome study, for the two clades of the subfamily Ixodinae (Prostriata), the Australasian Ixodes and all other Ixodes.

Kendall D. Funk ◽  
Hannah L. Paul ◽  
Andrew Q. Philips

Abstract Decades of research has debated whether women first need to reach a “critical mass” in the legislature before they can effectively influence legislative outcomes. This study contributes to the debate using supervised tree-based machine learning to study the relationship between increasing variation in women's legislative representation and the allocation of government expenditures in three policy areas: education, healthcare, and defense. We find that women's representation predicts spending in all three areas. We also find evidence of critical mass effects as the relationships between women's representation and government spending are nonlinear. However, beyond critical mass, our research points to a potential critical mass interval or critical limit point in women's representation. We offer guidance on how these results can inform future research using standard parametric models.

2021 ◽  
Marie Spohn ◽  
Felipe Aburto ◽  
Todd A. Ehlers ◽  
Nina Farwig ◽  
Patrick J. Frings ◽  

AbstractThis study presents a conceptual framework of buffering through storage and recycling of elements in terrestrial ecosystems and reviews the current knowledge about storage and recycling of elements in plants and ecosystems. Terrestrial ecosystems, defined here as plant-soil systems, buffer inputs from the atmosphere and bedrock through storage and recycling of elements, i.e., they dampen and delay their responses to inputs. Our framework challenges conventional paradigms of ecosystem resistance derived from plant community dynamics, and instead shows that element pools and fluxes have an overriding effect on the sensitivity of ecosystems to environmental change. While storage pools allow ecosystems to buffer variability in inputs over short to intermediate periods, recycling of elements enables ecosystems to buffer inputs over longer periods. The conceptual framework presented here improves our ability to predict the responses of ecosystems to environmental change. This is urgently needed to define thresholds which must not be exceeded to guarantee ecosystem functioning. This study provides a framework for future research to explore the extent to which ecosystems buffer variability in inputs.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Cailun A. S. Tanney ◽  
Rachel Backer ◽  
Anja Geitmann ◽  
Donald L. Smith

Cannabis has been legalized for recreational use in several countries and medical use is authorized in an expanding list of countries; markets are growing internationally, causing an increase in demand for high quality products with well-defined properties. The key compounds of Cannabis plants are cannabinoids, which are produced by stalked glandular trichomes located on female flowers. These trichomes produce resin that contains cannabinoids, such as tetrahydrocannabinolic acid and cannabidiolic acid, and an array of other secondary metabolites of varying degrees of commercial interest. While growers tend to focus on improving whole flower yields, our understanding of the “goldmines” of the plant – the trichomes – is limited despite their being the true source of revenue for a multi-billion-dollar industry. This review aims to provide an overview of our current understanding of cannabis glandular trichomes and their metabolite products in order to identify current gaps in knowledge and to outline future research directions.

2021 ◽  
Farid Anvari

In some fields of research, psychologists are interested in effect sizes that are large enough to make a difference to people’s subjective experience. Recently, an anchor-based method using a global rating of change was proposed as a way to quantify the smallest subjectively experienced difference—the smallest numerical difference in the outcome measure that, on average, corresponds to reported changes in people’s subjective experience. According to the method, the construct of interest is measured on two occasions (Time 1 and Time 2). At Time 2, people also use an anchor-item to report how much they experienced a change in the construct. Participants are then categorized as those who stayed the same, those who changed a lot, and those who changed a little. The average change score for those who changed a little is the estimate of the smallest subjectively experienced difference. In the present study, I examined two aspects of the method’s validity. First, I tested whether presenting the anchor-item before or after the Time 2 outcome measure influences the results. The results suggest that any potential influence of the anchor-position, assuming there is an influence, is likely to be small. Second, I tested whether the pattern of the anchor-item’s validity correlations is improved when the delay between Time 1 and 2 is one day, as opposed to the pattern found in past research where the delay was two and five days. The observed pattern of validity correlations remained largely the same. I note directions for future research.

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