Human γS-Crystallin Resists Unfolding Despite Extensive Chemical Modification from Exposure to Ionizing Radiation

Brenna Norton-Baker ◽  
Megan A. Rocha ◽  
Jessica Granger-Jones ◽  
Dmitry A. Fishman ◽  
Rachel W. Martin
M. L. Knotek

Modern surface analysis is based largely upon the use of ionizing radiation to probe the electronic and atomic structure of the surfaces physical and chemical makeup. In many of these studies the ionizing radiation used as the primary probe is found to induce changes in the structure and makeup of the surface, especially when electrons are employed. A number of techniques employ the phenomenon of radiation induced desorption as a means of probing the nature of the surface bond. These include Electron- and Photon-Stimulated Desorption (ESD and PSD) which measure desorbed ionic and neutral species as they leave the surface after the surface has been excited by some incident ionizing particle. There has recently been a great deal of activity in determining the relationship between the nature of chemical bonding and its susceptibility to radiation damage.

2020 ◽  
M.A. D’Avanzo ◽  
G.M. Contessa ◽  
G. Cocomello ◽  
M. Mattozzi ◽  
M. Pacilio ◽  

Purpose. In this article, the authors propose useful operational indications to approach in the best possible way the issues concerning the design of a facility for manufacturing radiopharmaceuticals, with focus on organizational and safety aspects. Methods. Several documents produced by authoritative bodies, national and international scientific institutions and associations were examined and referenced, to the purpose of reviewing all available information in the field. Results. Indications are gathered for the design stage, including the organization of accesses and routes and characteristics and requirements of premises and systems. Conclusions. Main goal is to guide the reader in evaluating and choosing the most suitable features and equipment to limit the risks due to ionizing radiation and to prevent contamination of the workers and the environment.

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