chemical modification
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2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 136-177
Author(s):  
Lucia García-Guzmán ◽  
Gustavo Cabrera-Barjas ◽  
Cintya G. Soria-Hernández ◽  
Johanna Castaño ◽  
Andrea Y. Guadarrama-Lezama ◽  
...  

The food packaging sector generates large volumes of plastic waste due to the high demand for packaged products with a short shelf-life. Biopolymers such as starch-based materials are a promising alternative to non-renewable resins, offering a sustainable and environmentally friendly food packaging alternative for single-use products. This article provides a chronology of the development of starch-based materials for food packaging. Particular emphasis is placed on the challenges faced in processing these materials using conventional processing techniques for thermoplastics and other emerging techniques such as electrospinning and 3D printing. The improvement of the performance of starch-based materials by blending with other biopolymers, use of micro- and nano-sized reinforcements, and chemical modification of starch is discussed. Finally, an overview of recent developments of these materials in smart food packaging is given.


Author(s):  
Brenna Norton-Baker ◽  
Megan A. Rocha ◽  
Jessica Granger-Jones ◽  
Dmitry A. Fishman ◽  
Rachel W. Martin

2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Michel Wehrhold ◽  
Tilmann J Neubert ◽  
Tobias Grosser ◽  
Kannan Balasubramanian

Electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) at single graphene sheets has been investigated widely either in its pristine form or after chemical modification. One important challenge is the long-term stability of single graphene sheets on Si/SiO2 substrates under HER. Previous reports have found that due to stress developing under gas evolution, the sheets tend to break apart, with a very low lifetime limited to just a few cycles of HER. Here, we show through appropriate electrode preparation that it is possible to achieve highly durable single graphene electrodes on insulating substrates, which can survive several hundreds of HER cycles with virtually no damage to the sp2-carbon framework. Through systematic investigations including atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and electroanalysis, we show that even after so many cycles, the sheet is physically intact and the electron transfer capability of the electrodes remain unaffected. This extremely high stability of a single atomic sheet of carbon, when combined with appropriate chemical modification strategies, will pave way for the realization of novel 2D electrocatalysts.


Catalysts ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 77
Author(s):  
Miroslawa Prochon ◽  
Szymon Szczepanik ◽  
Oleksandra Dzeikala ◽  
Robert Adamski

There is a major focus on natural biopolymers of bacterial, animal, or plant origin as ecological materials, replacing petrochemical products. Biologically derived polylactide (PLA), polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) possess interesting properties, but they are currently too expensive for most applications. Therefore, researchers try to find other biopolymers that are both durable and cheap enough to replace plastics in some applications. One possible candidate is gelatin, which can be transformed into a thin, translucent film that is flexible and has stable and high mechanical properties. Here, we present a method of synthesizing a composite material from gelatin. For preparation of such material, we used gelatin of animal origin (pig skin) with the addition of casein, food gelatin, glycerin, and enzymes as biocatalysts of chemical modification and further extraction of gelatin from collagen. Compositions forming films with homogeneous shapes and good mechanical properties were selected (Tensile strength reaches 3.11 MPa, while the highest value of elongation at break is 97.96%). After administering the samples to microbial scaring, the composites completely decomposed under the action of microorganisms within 30 days, which proves their biodegradation.


2022 ◽  
pp. 273-288
Author(s):  
Omar Dagdag ◽  
Eno E. Ebenso ◽  
Chandrabhan Verma ◽  
Mustapha El Gouri

2022 ◽  
Vol 331 ◽  
pp. 129952
Author(s):  
Yan Wu ◽  
Yijing Cai ◽  
Feng Yang ◽  
Jian Gan ◽  
Jilei Zhang

2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Hafez Jafari ◽  
Christine Delporte ◽  
Katrien V. Bernaerts ◽  
Houman Alimoradi ◽  
Lei Nie ◽  
...  

The design of 3D printable bio-based hydrogels with enhanced mechanical properties and minimal chemical modification can open new opportunities in the field of biomedical applications. A facile and safe approach...


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