physical and chemical
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 471-479
Aqsa Khan ◽  
Ghazna Hassan Khan ◽  
Eraj Humayun Mirza ◽  
Alidad Chandio ◽  
Maliha Mohsin ◽  

Bone tissue engineering has emerged as a multidisciplinary field in recent times with an aim to expedite the process of regeneration of damaged or diseased tissues. This study is an attempt to fabricate and characterize Tricalcium Phosphate (TCP) and Chitosan incorporated Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) based bone cement. In total two experimental PMMA based bone cements were fabricated that were differentiated by presence and absence of Chitosan. In both groups (10 and 30 wt.%) TCP were incorporated into Methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer. PMMA was used as a control. The physical, mechanical and thermal properties of the composites were assessed. Morphological changes of PMMA after the introduction of TCP and Chitosan were observed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD). Major peak shifts in Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra demonstrated the strong bonding of PMMA with incorporated materials. PMMA incorporated with 10% TCP showed the maximum wettability in absence of Chitosan. Hardness of the tested specimens decreased with increasing content of TCP which in turns enhanced ductility. It was also observed that neither of the samples showed significant degradation. The incorporation of additives enhance the physical and chemical properties of PMMA as bone cement.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 445-460
Qianrong Xiang ◽  
Zhuoxuan Wu ◽  
Er-Kang Tian ◽  
Shiqi Nong ◽  
Wen Liao ◽  

In recent years, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have gradually become a major choice of drug delivery cargoes due to unique properties. Compared to traditional bulk solid gold, GNPs have basic physical and chemical advantages, such as a larger surface area-to-volume ratio and easier surface modification. Furthermore, these have excellent biocompatibility, can induce the directional adsorption and enrichment of biological macromolecules, help retain biological macromolecule activity, and cause low harm to the human body. All these make GNPs good drug delivery cargoes. The present study introduces the properties of GNPs, including factors that affect the properties and synthesis. Then, focus was given on the application in drug delivery, not only on the molecular mechanism, but also on the clinical application. Furthermore, the properties and applications of peptide GNPs were also introduced. Finally, the challenges and prospects of GNPs for drug delivery were summarized.

2022 ◽  
Vol 369 ◽  
pp. 130953
Nancy N. Caballero-Rothar ◽  
Lucas Borrás ◽  
José A. Gerde

Raimunda A. Silva ◽  
Glécio M. Siqueira

ABSTRACT The edaphic community comprises several organisms that perform ecological functions in the environment, such as litter fragmentation, nutrient cycling, and modifications of soil structure, in addition to acting as food chain regulators. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the composition of the edaphic fauna and the physical and chemical attributes of soil in different physiognomies of Cerrado in the Parque Estadual do Mirador (PEM). The study was carried out in two Cerrado formations (Sparse Cerrado and Typical Cerrado) in PEM, where 100 pitfall traps were installed. The edaphic organisms were screened and identified in terms of orders, suborders, subfamilies, families, abundance, richness, Shannon diversity, and Pielou’s equitability. A total of 4,149 individuals were collected from two experimental plots. The plot in the Typical Cerrado showed greater taxonomic richness (25 groups) and greater Shannon diversity (H’ = 1.65), while the plot in Sparse Cerrado presented 19 edaphic groups and Shannon diversity equal to H’ = 1.51. The factorial exploration explained 84.43% of the original data from the Sparse Cerrado and 90.84% from the Typical Cerrado. It is concluded that the plot in the Typical Cerrado showed greater differences in terms of richness and abundance due to the more favorable conditions for soil fauna, such as a high content of organic material and greater vegetation cover.

Uniciencia ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 36 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-15
Julián Rojas-Vargas ◽  
José Mora-Barrantes ◽  
Pablo Herrera-Vargas ◽  
Vinicio Arias-Zuñiga

The grease and oil trap systems (GOTS) of four university food service establishments (FSE) were assessed and treated to evaluate the potential use of the sludge collected to produce compost. The sludge collected from each FSE was kept in a drying bed for 30 days (SDB), during which time calcium oxide was frequently added for stabilization. The sludge deposited monthly was reduced to half after the drying process and was then deposited in a composter and mixed for a period of 22 days with constant agitation. The compost obtained was treated with degrading enzymes and was denominated enzymatic composting (EC), while the remaining compost was not treated with enzyme and was denominated non-enzymatic compost (NEC). The total composting cycle of the sludge lasted 83 days, during which time various physical and chemical analyzes were conducted in the three types of substrates (SDB, NEC, and EC).  The total time of the research was 2.5 years.  The percentages of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, and calcium suggest the use of the three substrates as organic fertilizer. A recommendation resulting from this research is to evaluate the sludge quality by mixing it with other substrates such as fruit peels with high nitrogen content and the sludge from wastewater treatment systems.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Xiaomei Xue ◽  
Xuan Yuan ◽  
Lin Han ◽  
Xinde Li ◽  
Tony R. Merriman ◽  

IntroductionAchieving a goal of serum urate levels in patients with gout is an important way to prevent gout and its complications while it remains difficult with a low targeting rate worldwidely. Currently, hyperuricemia classification has not been widely applied to the management of gout owing to insufficient clinical evidences. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of achieving target urate based on hyperuricemia classification in Chinese patients with gout.MethodsIn this prospective study, patients with gout receiving urate lowering therapy with benzbromarone were assigned to two groups, a renal underexcretion and an unclassified type. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving the serum urate target (<360 μmol/L) during the 12-week study. The frequency of acute gout attacks as well as physical and chemical indicators were secondary endpoints.ResultsTarget serum urate level was achieved in 60.5% of underexcretors compared with 39.0% of patients of the unclassified type at week 12 (P = 0.002). Blood glucose and cholesterol levels were lower in the underexcretor group compared with the unclassified type group at the end of the trial, without significant different frequencies in gout flare during the study. In subgroup analysis, stratified by body mass index and estimated glomerular filtration rate, the proportion of patients with serum urate <360 μmol/L was greater in the underexcretion compared with the unclassified type group.ConclusionsThe increased achievement of target serum urate in the underexcretion group supports the use of a clinical hyperuricemia typing treatment strategy for gout.

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