design stage
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2022 ◽  
Vol 66 ◽  
pp. 12-25
Razak Olu-Ajayi ◽  
Hafiz Alaka ◽  
Ismail Sulaimon ◽  
Funlade Sunmola ◽  
Saheed Ajayi

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-25
Qiang Liu ◽  
Honghui Tang ◽  
Peiran Zhang

Fault injection attack (FIA) has become a serious threat to the confidentiality and fault tolerance of integrated circuits (ICs). Circuit designers need an effective method to evaluate the countermeasures of the IC designs against the FIAs at the design stage. To address the need, this article, based on FPGA emulation, proposes an in-circuit early evaluation framework, in which FIAs are emulated with parameterized fault models. To mimic FIAs, an efficient scan approach is proposed to inject faults at any time at any circuit nodes, while both the time and area overhead of fault injection are reduced. After the circuit design under test (CUT) is submitted to the framework, the scan chains insertion, fault generation, and fault injection are executed automatically, and the evaluation result of the CUT is generated, making the evaluation a transparent process to the designers. Based on the framework, the confidentiality and fault-tolerance evaluations are demonstrated with an information-based evaluation approach. Experiment results on a set of ISCAS89 benchmark circuits show that on average, our approach reduces the area overhead by 41.08% compared with the full scan approach and by over 20.00% compared with existing approaches. The confidentiality evaluation experiments on AES-128 and DES-56 and the fault-tolerance evaluation experiments on two CNN circuits, a RISC-V core, a Cordic core, and the float point arithmetic units show the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 34-44
Dhuha F. Yousife ◽  
Asad H. Aldefae ◽  
Salah L. Zubaidi ◽  
Alaa N. Aldelfee

The essential factor that must get the interest by the engineers during the primary design stage of underground pipes is understanding mechanism of damage during earthquakes. The attention during design period increased due to the increment of seismic catastrophes throughout the few past decades. Therefore, finite element procedure was used for studying the seismic performance of buried pipes. PLAXIS-2D program was using for simulating the seismic performance of buried pipes using earthquake motion of single frequency. The response of both seismic vertical displacement, and acceleration of the buried pipe were simulated. The experiments of shaking table for two models of buried pipe in dry case that surrounded with sand and gravel were compared with numerical simulation results. According to the obtained results, the amplification of seismic wave raised considerably from the buried pipe base to the pipe crown, the biggest amplification occurred in the highest point of the pipe model. It can be noticed that Plaxis-2D software provides an accurate method for the prediction of seismic behaviour of buried pipe due to the obvious compatibility between the results of experiments and numerical simulation.

2022 ◽  
Foteini Petrakli ◽  
Anastasia Gkika ◽  
Anestis Vlysidis ◽  
Panagiotis Karayannis ◽  
Elias Koumoulos

Abstract Innovative nanocomposite materials and resultant additive manufacturing products are necessary to be assessed for their carbon footprint towards top priorities of EU for plastics, including the European Green Deal principles and the Action Plan for Circular Economy. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is widely applied standardized methodology that aims to study potential environmental impacts of novel products. Nano-scale materials (NM) are usually dispersed in polymer to enhance their limited functional properties resulting in a spectrum of end-products for multiple applications. However, little information exists on their environmental impact. Within this context, this study presents a ‘cradle-to-gate plus end-of-life’ LCA approach, studying different types of 3D printing nanocomposite filaments across the supply chain. Three different types of polymer matrixes were examined: polyamide (PA), polypropylene (PP) and polylactic acid (PLA), additivated with three different types of nanomaterial additives: multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), graphene oxide (GO) forms and graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs), considering lab-scale production. In addition, several different EoL scenarios have been examined for the materials. Finally, LCA findings are coupled with the performance (taken here as conductivity) of these new materials to assist the decision-making process for selecting efficient scenarios with the least environmental impact. The outputs of this examination enable identification of potential sustainability issues for novel nanocomposite materials at an early design stage, while also assisting in the definition of actions to mitigate such issues. Thus, LCA studies can generate knowledge on the environmental impacts of nano-enabled materials, while also serving as a valuable decision support tool towards optimizing material sustainability aspects.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (15) ◽  
pp. 82-85
Nikolay Fedoreshchenko ◽  
Ksenya Lineytseva

The method of compensation of elastic vibrations of electric drives of industrial positioning mechanisms, as well as methods for assessing the level of these vibrations are shown. It is proposed to choose the parameters of the electric motor and the mechanism optimal according to the criterion of minimum vibrations at the design stage of the displacement mechanisms. Positioning mechanisms of the "actuator" type with screw –nut transmission make it possible to implement this approach

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 35-40
Yan Lu

The pollution problem arising from the flushing of initial rainwater and wastewater from accidents while transporting dangerous goods to source water protection areas needs to be solved as soon as possible. Therefore, the design of corresponding environmental protection measures should be considered in the engineering design stage. It is necessary to analyze the specific work in combination with engineering examples. Under this background, this paper first briefly expounds the precautions in accident risk analysis and the design of tank capacity and tank body. Finally, by analyzing actual cases, this paper systematically studies the design strategy of emergency pool in source water protection area, hoping to provide new development ideas for the upgrading of relevant work.

2022 ◽  
Nitish Kumar Gupta ◽  
Gaganpreet Singh ◽  
Harshawardhan Wanare ◽  
S Anantha Ramakrishna ◽  
Kumar Vaibhav Srivastava ◽  

Abstract This work pertains to the design, numerical investigation, and experimental demonstration of an optically transparent, lightweight, and conformable metastructure that exhibits multispectral signature management capabilities despite its extremely low-profile configuration. In comparison to the existing hierarchical approaches of designing multispectral stealth solutions, attention has been paid to accommodate the conflicting requirements of radar and infrared stealth using a single metasurface layer configuration, which required a few constraints to be incorporated during the design stage to ensure compatibility. This methodlogy promulgates the desired multispectral response with minimal manufacturing footprint and facilitates an efficient integration with the other existing countermeasure platforms. The resulting design exhibits a polarization-insensitive and incident angle stable broadband microwave absorption with at least 90% absorption ranging from 8.2 to 18.4 GHz. Concomitantly it also exhibits an averaged infrared emissivity of 0.46 in the 8-14µm long-wave infrared regime, along with high optical transparency (71% transmission at 632.8nm). Notably, the total thickness of the metastructure stands at 0.10λ_L (λ_L corresponds to the wavelength at lowest frequency). The metastructure has been fabricated with ITO coated PET sheets, on which the frequency selective pattern is machined using Excimer laser micromachining, and the performances are verified experimentally. Furthermore, a hybrid theoretical model has been developed that not only provides crucial insights into the operation of metastructure but also presents a methodical semi-analytical approach to design.

Irene Martinelli ◽  
Claudio Favi ◽  
Federico Campi ◽  
Giulio Marcello Lo Presti ◽  
Michele Germani

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 431
Nur Najihah Abu Bakar ◽  
Josep M. Guerrero ◽  
Juan C. Vasquez ◽  
Najmeh Bazmohammadi ◽  
Muzaidi Othman ◽  

Microgrids are among the promising green transition technologies that will provide enormous benefits to the seaports to manage major concerns over energy crises, environmental challenges, and economic issues. However, creating a good design for the seaport microgrid is a challenging task, considering different objectives, constraints, and uncertainties involved. To ensure the optimal operation of the system, determining the right microgrid configuration and component size at minimum cost is a vital decision at the design stage. This paper aims to design a hybrid system for a seaport microgrid with optimally sized components. The selected case study is the Port of Aalborg, Denmark. The proposed grid-connected structure consists of renewable energy sources (photovoltaic system and wind turbines), an energy storage system, and cold ironing facilities. The seaport architecture is then optimized by utilizing HOMER to meet the maximum load demand by considering important parameters such as solar global horizontal irradiance, temperature, and wind resources. Finally, the best configuration is analyzed in terms of economic feasibility, energy reliability, and environmental impacts.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Wenting Liu ◽  
Qingliang Zeng ◽  
Lirong Wan ◽  
Jinxia Liu ◽  
Hanzheng Dai

Although some reliability importance measures and maintenance policies for mechanical products exist in literature, they are rarely investigated with reference to weakest component identification in the design stage and preventive maintenance interval during the life cycle. This paper is mainly study reliability importance measures considering performance and costs (RIMPC) of maintenance and downtime of the mechanical hydraulic system (MHS) for hydraulic excavators (HE) with energy regeneration and recovery system (ERRS) and suggests the scheduled maintenance interval for key components and the system itself based on the reliability R i t . In the research, the required failure data for reliability analysis is collected from maintenance crews and users over three years of a certain type of hydraulic excavators. Minitab is used for probable distribution estimation of the mechanical hydraulic system failure times, and the model is verified to obey Weibull distribution. RIMPC is calculated by multiplying the reliability R i t and weighting factor W i and then compared with other classical importance measures. The purpose of this paper is to identify the weakest component for MHS in the design stage and to make appropriate maintenance strategies which help to maintain a high reliability level for MHS. The proposed method also provides the scientific maintenance suggestion for improving the MHS reliability of the HE reasonably, which is efficient, profitable, and organized.

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