scholarly journals An AI/ML-Based Strategy for Disaster Response and Evacuation of Victims in Aged Care Facilities in the Hawkesbury-Nepean Valley: A Perspective

Buildings ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 80
Hafiz Suliman Munawar ◽  
Mohammad Mojtahedi ◽  
Ahmed W. A. Hammad ◽  
Michael J. Ostwald ◽  
S. Travis Waller

The Hawkesbury-Nepean Valley, Australia’s longest coastal catchment, is spanned by a river system of more than 470 km, that runs from Goulburn to Broken Bay, covering a total area of over 2.2 million hectares. This region has remained prone to flood events, with considerable mortalities, economic impacts and infrastructural losses occurring quite regularly. The topography, naturally variable climatic conditions and the ‘bathtub’ effect in the region are responsible for the frequent flood events. In response, the Government at the national/federal, state and local level has focused on the design of efficient flood risk management strategies with appropriate evacuation plans for vulnerable communities from hospitals, schools, childcare and aged care facilities during a flood event. Despite these overarching plans, specialized response and evacuation plans for aged care facilities are critical to reducing the loss incurred by flood events in the region. This is the focus of this present paper, which reviews the history of flood events and responses to them, before examining the utilization of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques during flood events to overcome the flood risks. An early flood warning system, based on AI/Machine Learning (ML) strategy is being suggested for a timely decision, enhanced disaster prediction, assessment and response necessary to overcome the flood risks associated with aged care facilities within the Hawkesbury-Nepean region. A framework entailing AI/ML methods for identifying the safest route to the destination using UAV and path planning has been proposed for timely disaster response and evacuation of the residents of aged care facilities.

2021 ◽  
pp. bmjspcare-2020-002767
Jamie Bryant ◽  
Marcus Sellars ◽  
Craig Sinclair ◽  
Karen Detering ◽  
Kimberly Buck ◽  

Objectives(i) Describe the prevalence and type of advance care directives (ACDs) and other advance care planning (ACP) documentation completed by persons with dementia, healthcare providers and others on behalf of a person with dementia; (ii) identify the personal and ACP programme characteristics associated with having ACP documentation in the health record; (iii) identify the personal and ACP programme characteristics associated with having a self-completed ACD.MethodsA multicentre audit was undertaken in Australian hospitals, general practices and residential aged care facilities. Auditors extracted demographic and ACP data from the records of eligible patients. ACP programme characteristics were provided by a site representative. Logistic and multinomial regression were used respectively to examine the factors associated with completion of any ACP documentation, and self-completion of an ACD by persons with dementia.ResultsA total of 1388 people with dementia (33.2%) from 96 sites were included. Overall, 60.8% (n=844) had ACP documentation; 31.6% (n=438) had a self-completed ACD and 29.3% (n=406) had an ACP document completed by a health professional or someone else on their behalf. Older participants were more likely to have ACP documented. Multivariate analyses indicated the odds of having self-completed ACP documents, compared with no advance care plan or ACP completed by someone else, were significantly influenced by age, country of birth, setting and whether the site had ACP training, policies or guidelines.DiscussionWhile 60% of people with dementia had some form of ACP documentation, only half of the cases in which ACP was documented included an ACD completed by the person themselves.

2019 ◽  
Vol 20 (2) ◽  
pp. 171-179
Bruce Hocking ◽  
Michael Lowe ◽  
Tricia Nagel ◽  
Caroline Phillips ◽  
Melissa Lindeman ◽  

AbstractBackground:A high prevalence of dementia among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders has been reported but knowledge of underlying causes and associations remains limited.Objective:To identify the prevalence of factors that may be associated with the categories of Major neurocognitive disorders (Major NCDs) in Aboriginal people living in residential aged care facilities in Alice Springs in the Northern Territory (NT).Design and Setting:This descriptive cross-sectional study analysed clinical file and cognitive assessment data of participants who were identified as having cognitive impairment between January and June 2016.Method:Screening for the presence of cognitive impairment using the Kimberley Indigenous Cognitive Assessment (KICA) was undertaken and 58 of 84 Aboriginal people were admitted to the study. Using a clinical file audit, diagnoses of Major NCDs consistent with the DSM-5 classification were made and the prevalence of factors possibly associated with these diagnoses described.Results:Fifty of the 58 participants were diagnosed with a Major NCD. The most frequent diagnoses were Major NCD due to vascular disease (30%), Major NCD due to Alzheimer’s Disease (26%) and Major NCD due to brain injury (20%). Hypertension, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and alcohol misuse were commonly reported together with hypothyroidism, hypoglycaemia and vitamin D deficiency.Conclusion(s):This study identified possible associations with Major NCDs in this population as well as a different spread of Major NCD diagnoses to previous studies in Aboriginal populations. There is a need for further research to understand the causes of dementia in Australian Aboriginal people and to use this information to appropriately tailor treatment and prevention programmes.

2011 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. 95 ◽  
Geoffrey Mitchell ◽  
Caroline Nicholson ◽  
Keith McDonald ◽  
Anne Bucetti

The delivery of palliative care in residential aged care communities is challenging, even more so in rural areas due to workforce ageing and shortages. The objectives of the present study were to: (i) assess the needs of, and quality of palliative care delivered to residents of 16 residential aged care facilities in rural southern Australia; and (ii) identify the needs of care staff to facilitate the delivery of quality palliative care. A cross-sectional survey of all residents, assessing the degree of functional limitation, stage of palliative care, and the presence of several quality indicators was conducted. Separate focus groups of care staff and relatives of residents sought information on the quality of care delivered, perceived strengths and weaknesses of the care delivered, and education and training needs. Quality palliative care in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) is hampered by workforce shortages, with low ratios of registered nurses, limited access to general practitioners after hours, and some communication difficulties. Some staff reported low confidence in technical and psychosocial aspects of care, especially for relatives. Relatives described mostly appropriate care, while acknowledging workload constraints. Most residents whose condition was unstable, deteriorating or terminal received advance care planning, though family expectations and unwillingness to discuss end-of-life care did tend to delay planning. Unstable residents with a reasonable prognosis were more likely to be transferred to hospital than terminally ill residents. Palliative care in participating RACFs appears to be adequate. Provision of targeted education for health care providers and implementation of protocols for advance care planning and end-of life care pathways will enhance this care.

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