outcome measures
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Joanne DiFrancisco-Donoghue ◽  
Thomas Chan ◽  
Alexandra S. Jensen ◽  
James E. B. Docherty ◽  
Rebecca Grohman ◽  

Abstract Context Muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) can occur following intense exercise. Various modalities have been studied to improve blood lactate accumulation, which is a primary reason for DOMS. It has been well established that active recovery facilitates blood lactate removal more rapidly that passive recovery due to the pumping action of the muscle. The pedal pump is a manual lymphatic technique used in osteopathic manipulative medicine to increase lymphatic drainage throughout the body. Pedal pump has been shown to increase lymphatic flow and improve immunity. This may improve circulation and improve clearance of metabolites post-exercise. Objective This study compared the use of pedal pump lymphatic technique to passive supine recovery following maximal exercise. Methods 17 subjects (male n = 10, age 23 ± 3.01; female n = 7, age 24 ± 1.8), performed a maximal volume O2 test (VO2 max) using a Bruce protocol, followed by a recovery protocol using either pedal pump technique or supine passive rest for 10 min, followed by sitting for 10 min. Outcome measures included blood lactate concentration (BL), heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and VO2. Subjects returned on another day to repeat the VO2 max test to perform the other recovery protocol. All outcomes were measured at rest, within 1- minute post-peak exercise, and at minutes 4, 7, 10 and 20 of the recovery protocols. A 2 × 6 repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare outcome measures (p ≤ 0.05). Results No significant differences were found in VO2, HR, or SBP between any of the recovery protocols. There was no significant difference in BL concentrations for recovery at minutes 4, 7, or 10 (p > 0.05). However, the pedal pump recovery displayed significantly lower BL concentrations at minute 20 of recovery (p = 0.04). Conclusion The pedal pump significantly decreased blood lactate concentrations following intense exercise at recovery minute 20. The use of manual lymphatic techniques in exercise recovery should be investigated further.

Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 199
Marta Mirando ◽  
Corrado Conti ◽  
Federica Zeni ◽  
Fabio Pedicini ◽  
Antonio Nardone ◽  

(1) Background: Ankle fracture results in pain, swelling, stiffness and strength reduction, leading to an altered biomechanical behavior of the joint during the gait cycle. Nevertheless, a common pattern of kinematic alterations has still not been defined. To this end, we analyzed the literature on instrumental gait assessment after ankle fracture, and its correlation with evaluator-based and patient-reported outcome measures. (2) Methods: We conducted a systematic search, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines, of articles published from January 2000 to June 2021 in PubMed, Embase and PEDro on instrumental gait assessment after ankle fracture. (3) Results: Several changes in gait occur after ankle fracture, including a reduction in step length, swing time, single support time, stride length, cadence, speed and an earlier foot-off time in the affected side. Additionally, trunk movement symmetry (especially vertical) is significantly reduced after ankle fracture. The instrumental assessments correlate with different clinical outcome measures. (4) Conclusions: Instrumental gait assessment can provide an objective characterization of the gait alterations after ankle fracture. Such assessment is important not only in clinical practice to assess patients’ performance but also in clinical research as a reference point to evaluate existing or new rehabilitative interventions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Emmeline Lagunes-Cordoba ◽  
Ruth Alcala-Lozano ◽  
Roberto Lagunes-Cordoba ◽  
Ana Fresan-Orellana ◽  
Manuela Jarrett ◽  

Abstract Background There is research evidence regarding the presence of stigmatising attitudes in psychiatrists towards people with mental illness, but a lack of studies and interventions focused on this issue in low and middle-income countries. Aims To assess the feasibility of implementing an anti-stigma intervention for Mexican psychiatric trainees, and its potential effects. Methods This study comprised a pre-post design with outcome measures compared between baseline and 3-month follow-up. Quantitative outcome measures were used to evaluate the potential effects of the intervention, whilst the process evaluation required the collection and analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data. Results Twenty-nine trainees (25% of those invited) participated in the intervention, of whom 18 also participated in the follow-up assessment. Outcome measures showed the intervention had moderately large effects on reducing stereotypes and the influence of other co-workers on trainees’ own attitudes. The main mechanisms of impact identified were recognition of negative attitudes in oneself and colleagues, self-reflection about the impact of stigma, one’s own negative attitudes and recognition of one’s ability to make change. Participants accepted and were satisfied with the intervention, which many considered should be part of their routine training. However, trainees’ work overload and lack of support from the host organisation were identified as barriers to implement the intervention. Conclusions A brief anti-stigma intervention for Mexican psychiatric trainees is feasible, potentially effective, well accepted and was considered necessary by participants. This study also suggests mechanisms of impact and mediators should be considered for developing further interventions, contributing to reducing the damaging effects that mental health-related stigma has on people’s lives.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Mingyue Li ◽  
Ziyue Wang ◽  
Baisong Zhang ◽  
Tiantian Wei ◽  
Dan Hu ◽  

Abstract Background A major challenge of prospective cohort studies is attrition in follow-up surveys. This study investigated attrition in a prospective cohort comprised of medical graduates in China. We described status of attrition, identified participants with higher possibility of attrition, and examined if attrition affect the estimation of the key outcome measures. Methods The cohort study recruited 3,620 new medical graduates from four medical universities in central and western China between 2015 and 2019. Online follow-up surveys were conducted on an annual basis. Follow-up status was defined as complete (meaning that the participant completed all the follow-up surveys) and incomplete, while incomplete follow-up was further divided into ‘always-out’, ‘rejoin’ and ‘other’. Multivariable logistic and linear regressions were used to examine factors predicting attrition and the influence on the outcome measures of career development. Results 2364 (65.3%) participants completed all follow-up surveys. For those with incomplete follow-up, 520 (14.4%) were ‘always-out’, 276 (7.6%) rejoined in the 2020 survey. Willingness to participate in residency training (OR=0.80, 95%CI[0.66 - 0.98]) and willingness to provide sensitive information in the baseline survey predicted a lower rate of attrition (providing scores for university entrance exam OR=0.82, 95%CI[0.69 - 0.97]]; providing contact information (OR=0.46, 95%CI[0.32 - 0.66]); providing household income (OR=0.60, 95%CI[0.43 - 0.84]). Participants with compulsory rural service (OR=1.52, 95%CI[1.05 - 2.19]) and those providing university entrance scores (OR=1.64, 95%CI[1.15-2.33)) were more likely to rejoin in the follow-up survey. These factors associated with follow-up status did not have significant impact on key outcome measures of career development. Conclusions Graduates who were unwilling to participate in residency training or not providing sensitive information should be targeted early in the cohort study to reduce attrition. More information about the study should be provided to those graduates early to facilitate their understanding of the meaning in participation. On the contrary, medical graduates with compulsory rural service and those who provided university entrance scores were more likely to rejoin in the cohort. The research team should invest more effort in contacting those graduates and returned them to the cohort.

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 105
Kona Chowdhury ◽  
Mainul Haque ◽  
Nadia Nusrat ◽  
Nihad Adnan ◽  
Salequl Islam ◽  

There is an increasing focus on researching children admitted to hospital with new variants of COVID-19, combined with concerns with hyperinflammatory syndromes and the overuse of antimicrobials. Paediatric guidelines have been produced in Bangladesh to improve their care. Consequently, the objective is to document the management of children with COVID-19 among 24 hospitals in Bangladesh. Key outcome measures included the percentage prescribed different antimicrobials, adherence to paediatric guidelines and mortality rates using purposely developed report forms. The majority of 146 admitted children were aged 5 years or under (62.3%) and were boys (58.9%). Reasons for admission included fever, respiratory distress and coughing; 86.3% were prescribed antibiotics, typically parenterally, on the WHO ‘Watch’ list, and empirically (98.4%). There were no differences in antibiotic use whether hospitals followed paediatric guidance or not. There was no prescribing of antimalarials and limited prescribing of antivirals (5.5% of children) and antiparasitic medicines (0.7%). The majority of children (92.5%) made a full recovery. It was encouraging to see the low hospitalisation rates and limited use of antimalarials, antivirals and antiparasitic medicines. However, the high empiric use of antibiotics, alongside limited switching to oral formulations, is a concern that can be addressed by instigating the appropriate programmes.

Benson S. Chen ◽  
Tomasz Galus ◽  
Stephanie Archer ◽  
Valerija Tadić ◽  
Mike Horton ◽  

Abstract Purpose To identify and comprehensively evaluate studies capturing the experience of individuals affected by an inherited optic neuropathy (ION), focusing on patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and qualitative studies where the health status and quality of life (QoL) of these individuals have been explored. Methods Systematic review of five databases using a search strategy combining four concepts: (1) ION; (2) QoL and health status; (3) PROMs; and (4) qualitative research. Studies assessing the impact of ION on any QoL domain using a PROM or qualitative methodology were included and appraised, using criteria based on the COSMIN checklist (for PROM studies) and the CASP checklist (for qualitative studies). Results Of 1326 unique articles identified, six studies were included. Five PROMs were identified: Visual Function Index (VF-14); Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); a novel graphical online assessment tool (NGOAT) for reporting emotional response to vision loss; a new PROM informed by the DSM-V Criteria for Major Depressive Disorder; and an interpersonal and career ‘impact rating’ PROM. The psychometric performance of included PROMs were poorly described. Qualitative studies found that vision loss resulted in psychosocial losses including loss of social and communication skills and loss of independence and freedom. Factors that modified the response to vision loss were also identified. Conclusion The current PROMs used by individuals with ION have poor content coverage, primarily measuring activity limitation and emotional well-being, and insufficient reporting of psychometric performance. There is a need to develop a PROM for individuals ION to report their experiences of living with their condition.

BMC Urology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Okwudili Calistus Amu ◽  
Emmanuel Azubuike Affusim ◽  
Ugochukwu Uzodimma Nnadozie ◽  
Okezie Mbadiwe

Abstract Background Malament stitch is one of the effective techniques employed to minimize bleeding in simple open prostatectomy but concerns about possibility of increased risk of bladder neck stenosis has limited its routine use. Aim We studied patients who had open prostatectomy with Malament stitch to determine the incidence of bladder neck stenosis amongst them. Material and methods This was a prospective study of 72patients who had simple open prostatectomy in which malament stitch was applied from 2010 to 2020. A proforma was designed to collect data. Pretreatment variables were transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) volume of prostate, pretreatment IPSS value, postvoidal residual urine volume before surgery, weight of enucleated prostate adenoma, time to removal of Malament stitch. Outcome measures were done with post treatment IPSS and PVR at 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months. Cystoscopy was done at 3 months or 6 months for patients with rising outcome measures to determine presence of bladder neck stenosis. Results The mean age of patients in this study was 68.3 years (SD = 7.1, range 52–82). The mean of the pretreatment score for IPSS was 30.7 (SD = 3.9, range 18–34) and 5.9 (SD = 0.2) for QOLS. The mean weight of prostate estimated with ultrasound was 169.5 g and mean weight of enucleated adenoma of the prostate was 132.5 g. The mean time of removal of Malament stitch was 23.1 h. Only 3 (4.2%) patients required cystoscopy because of increasing IPSS and PVR at 3 months postprostatectomy. 2 (2.8%) patients out of 72patients were confirmed to have bladder neck stenosis at cystoscopy. Conclusion Malament stitch did not lead to significant incidence of bladder neck stenosis in this study.

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