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2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-27
Author(s):  
Md Momin Al Aziz ◽  
Tanbir Ahmed ◽  
Tasnia Faequa ◽  
Xiaoqian Jiang ◽  
Yiyu Yao ◽  
...  

Technological advancements in data science have offered us affordable storage and efficient algorithms to query a large volume of data. Our health records are a significant part of this data, which is pivotal for healthcare providers and can be utilized in our well-being. The clinical note in electronic health records is one such category that collects a patient’s complete medical information during different timesteps of patient care available in the form of free-texts. Thus, these unstructured textual notes contain events from a patient’s admission to discharge, which can prove to be significant for future medical decisions. However, since these texts also contain sensitive information about the patient and the attending medical professionals, such notes cannot be shared publicly. This privacy issue has thwarted timely discoveries on this plethora of untapped information. Therefore, in this work, we intend to generate synthetic medical texts from a private or sanitized (de-identified) clinical text corpus and analyze their utility rigorously in different metrics and levels. Experimental results promote the applicability of our generated data as it achieves more than 80\% accuracy in different pragmatic classification problems and matches (or outperforms) the original text data.


2022 ◽  
pp. 275275302110687
Author(s):  
Kimberly A. Pyke-Grimm ◽  
Linda S. Franck ◽  
Bonnie Halpern-Felsher ◽  
Robert E. Goldsby ◽  
Roberta S. Rehm

Background: Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer must negotiate the transition between childhood and adulthood while dealing with a life-threatening illness. AYA involvement in decision making varies depending on the type of decision and when decisions occur during treatment, and evidence suggests that AYAs want to be involved in decision making. Objective: To explore involvement of AYAs with cancer in day-to-day decisions affected by their cancer and treatment. Methods: This qualitative study used interpretive focused ethnography within the sociologic tradition, informed by symbolic interactionism. Semi-structured interviews and informal participant observation took place at two quaternary pediatric oncology programs. Results: Thirty-one interviews were conducted with 16 AYAs ages 15 to 20 years. Major day to day decision-making categories identified included: (1) mental mindset, (2) self-care practices, (3) self-advocacy, and (4) negotiating relationships. Participants described how they came to grips with their illness early on and decided to fight their cancer. They described decisions they made to protect their health, how they advocated for themselves and decisions they made about relationships with family and friends. Conclusions: Through day-to-day decisions, participants managed the impact of cancer and its treatment on their daily lives. Research should focus on developing and implementing interventions to empower AYAs to participate in day-to-day decisions that will affect how they manage their cancer, its treatment and ultimately their outcomes. Implications for Practice: Healthcare providers can facilitate AYA's participation in day-to-day decision making through encouraging autonomy and self-efficacy by providing support and through effective communication.


Author(s):  
Shu Hui Ng

AbstractMalaysia hosts a significant number of refugees, asylum-seekers and migrant workers. Healthcare access for these individuals has always proved a challenge: language barriers, financial constraints and mobility restrictions are some of the frequently cited hurdles. The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated these existing inequalities, with migrants and refugees bearing the brunt of chronic systemic injustices. Providing equitable healthcare access for all, regardless of their citizenship and social status remains an ethical challenge for healthcare providers, particularly within the framework of a resource-limited healthcare system. Inclusive healthcare and socio-economic policies are necessary to ensure every individual’s equal opportunity to attain good health. The collective experiences of refugees and migrants in the pursuit of healthcare, as highlighted by the two cases described, showcases the importance of equity in healthcare access and the detrimental implications of non-inclusive healthcare and socio-economic policies.


Author(s):  
Martin Færch Andersen ◽  
Julie Midtgaard ◽  
Eik Dybboe Bjerre

Men diagnosed and treated for prostate cancer experience severe adverse effects on quality of life (QoL) and metabolic health, some of which may be preventable or reversible with exercise, the benefits of which healthcare providers and patients increasingly acknowledge, though existing evidence on its effects varies in significance and magnitude. We aimed to review the effect of exercise on QoL and metabolic health in a broad prostate cancer population. A systematic search was conducted in nine databases and eligible trials were included in the meta-analytic procedure. All outcomes were stratified into aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, and a combination of both. The review identified 33 randomised controlled trials (2567 participants) eligible for inclusion. Exercise had a borderline small positive effect on cancer-specific QoL (standardised mean difference (SMD) = 0.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.01–0.22), and a moderate to large effect on cardiovascular fitness (SMD = 0.46, 95% CI 0.34–0.59) with aerobic exercise being the superior modality (SMD = 0.60, 95% CI 0.29–0.90). A positive significant effect was seen in lower body strength, whole-body fat mass, general mental health, and blood pressure. No significant effect was seen in fatigue, lean body mass, and general physical health. We thereby conclude that exercise is effective in improving metabolic health in men diagnosed with prostate cancer, with aerobic exercise as the superior modality. The effect of exercise on QoL was small and not mediated by choice of exercise modality.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Lorraine Smith-MacDonald ◽  
Jaimie Lusk ◽  
Dayna Lee-Baggley ◽  
Katherine Bright ◽  
Alexa Laidlaw ◽  
...  

Introduction:In the context of the global pandemic of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (COVID-19), healthcare providers (HCPs) have experienced difficult moral and ethical dilemmas. Research is highlighting the importance of moral injury (MI)–a trauma syndrome related to transgressing personal morals and values–in understanding the psychological harm and occupational impairment experienced by HCPs. To date, MI treatments have largely been developed for military personnel and veterans and rely on in-person one-on-one psychotherapy.Purpose:This project aims to explore the feasibility and acceptability of an evidence-informed online Acceptance and Commitment Therapy-based group therapy for MI in HCPs called “Accepting Moral Pain and Suffering for Healthcare Providers” (AMPS-HCP).Method:This feasibility and acceptability study included three separate phases with the first two phases focused on the development of the psychotherapeutic intervention and the third phase focused on the evaluation of the psychotherapeutic intervention. Eight participants (including registered nurses, practical nurses and respiratory therapists) completed seven 90-min sessions in an online group format. The focus of these sessions included ACT and MI psychoeducation and experientials. Qualitative semi-structured interview data was thematically analyzed while demographic and quantitative self-reported outcome data underwent descriptive analysis and non-parametric testing.Results:Results show that the intervention was highly feasible and acceptable to healthcare providers who worked on the frontline during COVID-19. Feasibility (referrals, eligibility, retention, participation engagement) was strong (8 out of 10 participants; 80% vs. desired >70% eligibility) and overall, 80% of participants completed 71% of the intervention. Data further supported the applicability and acceptability of the intervention. Preliminary data suggests that AMPS-HCP may supports HCPs to address MI.Discussion:This study is the first to report on the development and evaluation of an online MI group intervention for registered nurses, registered practical nurses, and respiratory therapists working during COVID-19. Results showed the use of both the online and group components of the intervention were acceptable and feasible during the third wave of COVID-19.


2022 ◽  
Vol 32 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Katelyn R. Smalley ◽  
Lisa Aufegger ◽  
Kelsey Flott ◽  
Erik K. Mayer ◽  
Ara Darzi

AbstractBronchiectasis is an increasingly common chronic respiratory disease which requires a high level of patient engagement in self-management. Whilst the need for self-management has been recognised, the knowledge and skills needed to do so— and the extent to which patients possess these—has not been well-specified. On one hand, understanding the gaps in people’s knowledge and skills can enable better targeting of self-management supports. On the other, clarity about what they do know can increase patients’ confidence to self-manage. This study aims to develop an assessment of patients’ ability to self-manage effectively, through a consensus-building process with patients, clinicians and policymakers. The study employs a modified, online three-round Delphi to solicit the opinions of patients, clinicians, and policymakers (N = 30) with experience of bronchiectasis. The first round seeks consensus on the content domains for an assessment of bronchiectasis self-management ability. Subsequent rounds propose and refine multiple-choice assessment items to address the agreed domains. A group of ten clinicians, ten patients and ten policymakers provide both qualitative and quantitative feedback. Consensus is determined using content validity ratios. Qualitative feedback is analysed using the summative content analysis method. Overarching domains are General Health Knowledge, Bronchiectasis-Specific Knowledge, Symptom Management, Communication, and Addressing Deterioration, each with two sub-domains. A final assessment tool of 20 items contains two items addressing each sub-domain. This study establishes that there is broad consensus about the knowledge and skills required to self-manage bronchiectasis effectively, across stakeholder groups. The output of the study is an assessment tool that can be used by patients and their healthcare providers to guide the provision of self-management education, opportunities, and support.


Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 99
Author(s):  
Haya Nassar ◽  
Rana Abu-Farha ◽  
Muna Barakat ◽  
Eman Alefishat

This study aimed to evaluate health professionals’ perceptions regarding the level of implementation of the Antimicrobials Stewardship (AMS) programs in Jordanian tertiary hospitals and to assess the perceived barriers to its implementation. During this cross-sectional study, a total of 157 healthcare providers agreed to participate (response rate 96.3%). Participants were asked to complete an electronic survey after meeting them at their working sites. Only 43.9% of the healthcare providers (n = 69) reported having an AMS committee in their hospital settings. The results suggested that private hospitals have significantly better AMS implementation compared to public hospitals among four areas (p ≤ 0.05). Moreover, the results showed that the most widely available strategies to implement AMS were infectious disease/microbiology advice (n = 112, 71.3%), and treatment guidelines (n = 111, 70.7%). Additionally, the study revealed that the main barrier to AMS implementation was the lack of information technology support (n = 125, 79.6%). These findings could draw managers’ attention to the importance of AMS and support the health care provider’s practice of AMS in Jordanian tertiary hospitals by making the right decisions and the required modifications regarding the strategies needed for the implementation of AMS programs.


Author(s):  
Kathleen Mead Vandiver ◽  
Esther Erdei ◽  
Amanda G. Mayer ◽  
Catherine Ricciardi ◽  
Marcia O’Leary ◽  
...  

This study addresses healthcare providers’ knowledge deficits in environmental health and genetics, and primarily focuses on student nurses and nurses serving marginalized, low-income communities frequently exposed to environmental toxicants. Our approach to improve public health is unique, combining hands-on modeling exercises with case-based lessons in addition to three targeted 40 min lectures on toxicology. These lectures included the team’s community-based environmental health research among Indigenous peoples of the U.S. The hands-on approach employed DNA and protein molecular models designed to demonstrate normal and dysfunctional molecules, as well as genetic variants in world populations. The models provided learners with visuals and an experience of “learning by doing.” Increased awareness of the effects of environmental toxicants is the first step toward improving health care for exposed communities. We measured knowledge gains by pre- and post-tests among student nurses and nurses serving Native Americans living both in urban and rural areas of the U.S. (n = 116). The modeling lessons illustrated genetic variants in liver proteins common in Native peoples and their resulting health vulnerabilities. Participants were engaged and enthusiastic; and pre- and post-test results reported substantial knowledge gains and a greater understanding of genetic susceptibility (p < 0.0001). Our study demonstrates the utility of this framework across diverse populations and remote communities.


2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (GROUP) ◽  
pp. 1-26
Author(s):  
Elizabeth D. Mynatt ◽  
Kayci Vickers ◽  
Salimah LaForce ◽  
Sarah K. Farmer ◽  
Jeremy M. Johnson ◽  
...  

In the Spring of 2020, closures and safe distancing orders swept much of the United States due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper presents a case study of pivoting an in-person empowerment program focused on lifestyle interventions for people newly diagnosed with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) to an online program. Working as rapidly as possible to sustain participant engagement, our design decisions and subsequent iterations point to initial constraints in telehealth capabilities, as well as learning on the fly as new capabilities and requirements emerged. We present the discovery of emergent practices by family members and healthcare providers to meet the new requirements for successful online engagement. For some participants, the online program led to greater opportunities for empowerment while others were hampered by the lack of in-person program support. Providers experienced a sharp learning curve and likewise missed the benefits of in-person interaction, but also discovered new benefits of online collaboration. This work lends insights and potential new avenues for understanding how lifestyle interventions can empower people with MCI and the role of technology in that process.


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