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2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 964
Derek Hungness ◽  
Raj Bridgelall

Transportation planning has historically relied on statistical models to analyze travel patterns across space and time. Recently, an urgency has developed in the United States to address outdated policies and approaches to infrastructure planning, design, and construction. Policymakers at the federal, state, and local levels are expressing greater interest in promoting and funding sustainable transportation infrastructure systems to reduce the damaging effects of pollutive emissions. Consequently, there is a growing trend of local agencies transitioning away from the traditional level-of-service measures to vehicle miles of travel (VMT) measures. However, planners are finding it difficult to leverage their investments in their regional travel demand network models and datasets in the transition. This paper evaluates the applicability of VMT forecasting and impact assessment using the current travel demand model for Dane County, Wisconsin. The main finding is that exploratory spatial data analysis of the derived data uncovered statistically significant spatial relationships and interactions that planners cannot sufficiently visualize using other methods. Planners can apply these techniques to identify places where focused VMT remediation measures for sustainable networks and environments can be most cost-effective.

Buildings ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 80
Hafiz Suliman Munawar ◽  
Mohammad Mojtahedi ◽  
Ahmed W. A. Hammad ◽  
Michael J. Ostwald ◽  
S. Travis Waller

The Hawkesbury-Nepean Valley, Australia’s longest coastal catchment, is spanned by a river system of more than 470 km, that runs from Goulburn to Broken Bay, covering a total area of over 2.2 million hectares. This region has remained prone to flood events, with considerable mortalities, economic impacts and infrastructural losses occurring quite regularly. The topography, naturally variable climatic conditions and the ‘bathtub’ effect in the region are responsible for the frequent flood events. In response, the Government at the national/federal, state and local level has focused on the design of efficient flood risk management strategies with appropriate evacuation plans for vulnerable communities from hospitals, schools, childcare and aged care facilities during a flood event. Despite these overarching plans, specialized response and evacuation plans for aged care facilities are critical to reducing the loss incurred by flood events in the region. This is the focus of this present paper, which reviews the history of flood events and responses to them, before examining the utilization of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques during flood events to overcome the flood risks. An early flood warning system, based on AI/Machine Learning (ML) strategy is being suggested for a timely decision, enhanced disaster prediction, assessment and response necessary to overcome the flood risks associated with aged care facilities within the Hawkesbury-Nepean region. A framework entailing AI/ML methods for identifying the safest route to the destination using UAV and path planning has been proposed for timely disaster response and evacuation of the residents of aged care facilities.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 78-88
E. S. Shugrina

The subject of the research are the materials of judicial practice (texts of court decisions and information sources, the content of information about the results of court hearings), data from sociological surveys.The purpose of the article is to identify the relationship between the knowledge of municipal law, local self-government or urbanism obtained during training at a university and subsequent professional activities related to local self-government carried out at different levels of public authority.The methodology. A comprehensive methodology was used, including legal and sociological research methods. Formal legal, legal technical and comparative legal were used among the legal methods. The sociological methods include the method of expert survey and the method of content analysis, which makes it possible to reveal the real position of the respondent, if he wants to disguise it not only the positions expressed, but also the words actually used were analyzed. The most repeatable ones were identified with the help of special software products.The main results, scope of application. Quite significant amendments were made to the Russian Constitution in 2020. One of the novels concerns a unified system of public power, the inclusion of a new term in the text of the constitution. The implementation of these novels in the legislation on local self-government is expected after the completion of the formation of the updated composition of the Federal Assembly. For this, it is necessary not only to reveal the term itself and list the levels of public authority, but also to establish new principles of their relationship, incl. in a sense, uniform standards, rules and requirements for state and local authorities. One of the possible consequences of this may be an increase in the prestige of work in local self-government bodies, a change in attitudes towards work in local self-government bodies.Conclusions. The analysis of the materials of law enforcement practice, the data of opinion polls on trust in local self-government bodies, attitude to the results of the work of local self-government bodies and their officials show that of all levels of government the municipal level is least trusted. Unfortunately, such an attitude begins to form in the process of training future employees of public authorities at different levels.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 5-19
E. V. Vinogradova ◽  
T. A. Polyakova ◽  
A. V. Minbaleev

The subject of the research is the legal nature of the digital profile of a citizen, as well as a set of legal norms regulating digital profiling relations in Russia.The comparative method, the method of system analysis, as well as the method of legal modeling are used in the article.The purpose of the article is to confirm or disprove the hypothesis that legal regulation is not the only mechanism for regulating relations in the field of digital profiling.The main results, scope of application. The article studies the phenomenon of digital profile, the main approaches to the digital profiling as well as the circumstances that have caused the state's interest in digital profiling. The creation and operation of a digital profile should be aimed at achieving the goal set out in the legislation. The digital profile is a set of relevant, reliable information about individuals and legal entities formed in the unified identification and authentication system or other information systems of state and local government authorities. The formation of a digital profile is carried out in order to provide data to authorities, legal entities and persons who have requested access to this information through the digital profile infrastructure. The analysis of the Russian legal regulation of relations in the field of digital profiling is presented, the problems of enforcement practice are identified. The analysis revealed the main differences between the digital profile and related categories, including social scoring, the unified population register and others. The comparison of a digital profile with a digital avatar and a digital character was carried out. It is extremely important to pay close attention to the problems of digital profiling both at the level of fundamental and applied scientific research. At the state level, it is important to strategically determine what a digital profile is, as well as formulate the main directions of the digital profiling development, challenges and risks. The importance of the development of digital profiling for unified system of public authorities in the Russian Federation is outlined.Conclusions. The analysis of the emerging practice of digital profiling in contemporary society shows that legal regulation does not always allow us to keep up with the rapidly developing relations in this area. The possibility of using other mechanisms should be considered. The use of mechanisms of regulatory experiments can also be considered as special mechanisms for regulating relations in the field of digital profiling. The goal of the research has been achieved, the legal nature of the digital profile has been revealed, approaches to regulating this phenomenon in the conditions of digital transformation have been proposed.

EDIS ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2021 (6) ◽  
Rao Mylavarapu ◽  
George Hochmuth ◽  
Guodong Liu

This publication presents the fertilization recommendations for vegetable crops based on soil tests performed by the UF/IFAS Extension Soil Testing Laboratory (ESTL). It contains the basic information from which ESTL soil test reports and fertilization recommendations are generated. The audiences for this information include commercial and small farmers, crop advisers and consultants, state and local agencies, fertilizer industry, and any interested individuals interested in sustainable nutrient and environmental management. Major revision by Rao Mylavarapu, George Hochmuth, and Guodong Liu; 12 pp.

Vadym Polischuk

Annotation. Introduction. The article investigates the main problems in the field of social protection of the population in Ukraine that require an immediate solution. The theoretical approach to the financial support of the social sphere is considered. The reasons for the negative impact on the implementation of budget policy in the social protection system are investigated. The financing of social protection and social security, health and education from state and local budgets of Ukraine is analyzed. Changes in the system of social protection through the transformation of financing of the social protection system are determined. The purpose of the article. It is worth exploring the financial support of social services in Ukraine in recent years. It is also worth offering possible ways to counteract the underfunding of the social sphere from the budgets of different levels. Results. Formation of national social security in the system of public finance management should be carried out on the basis of the system of fiscal norms and to be focused; to ensure effective forms of supporting various social groups that require social protection; transition to cash provision of welfare; Personal assistance to the state is included in income of individuals and families. Taking into account that wages are still the main source of income in Ukraine, it is necessary to increase its share in income, paying special attention to minimal hourly remuneration. Conclusions. The main reason for the negative impact on the implementation of fiscal policy in the social security system is mainly reflected in the implementation of the budget expenditures approved by the state. In addition, during the research process, we have found that in the state budget of Ukraine, social security expenditures and social insurance funds have increased more than doubled over the past five years, indicating the lack of funds in this area.

2022 ◽  
pp. 2019-2040
Harrison M. Rosenthal ◽  
Genelle I. Belmas

This chapter chronicles the legislative and jurisprudential history of workplace bullying and analyzes new frameworks for applying employee harassment laws to the digital era. Part I considers the sociolegal underpinnings of workplace harassment found in Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. The authors discuss how Title VII and its legal progeny gave way to “hostile work environment” claims. Part II discusses leading U.S. Supreme Court precedent, the creation of an affirmative defense for employers, and the limitations of that defense, including those developing in state and local jurisdictions. Part III discusses prevailing solutions and raises questions not yet addressed in the legal literature. Findings reveal that American jurisprudence is ill-set to protect or compensate workers injured by bullying—either cyber or physical.

2022 ◽  
Vol 37 (1_suppl) ◽  
pp. 3S-14S

For decades, school-located vaccinations clinics (SLVs) have successfully offered influenza and routine childhood immunizations that have contributed to lowering the morbidity and mortality of vaccine-preventable diseases. These SLVs laid the foundation for state and local health departments and school districts to quickly implement SLVs in response to COVID-19. To support school nurses and immunization programs in implementing future SLVs during the COVID-19 pandemic, we explored the landscape of SLVs between August 2019 and late summer 2021 using publicly available information from school and health department websites, news articles reporting on SLVs, and internal documents provided by school nurses and immunization programs who hosted SLVs. Our scan identified variability in the reach, scope, and approach to SLVs, but consistent themes persist such as the importance of partnerships and SLVs as an opportunity to promote equitable access to vaccinations. Useful documents and resources for planning and hosting SLV clinics were compiled into a table. With COVID-19 vaccines now available to all school-age children, SLVs provide an even greater opportunity to improve school and community health. The included resources are designed to provide support for those interested in SLV implementation.

Daedalus ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 151 (1) ◽  
pp. 121-134
Jennifer M. Chacón

Abstract Immigration enforcement in the United States has undergone a revolutionary transformation over the past three decades. Once episodic, border-focused, and generally confined to the efforts of a relatively small federal agency, immigration enforcement is now exceedingly well-funded and integrated deeply into the everyday policing of the interior United States. Not only are federal immigration agents more numerous and ubiquitous in the interior, but immigration enforcement has been integrated into the policing practices of state and local officials who once saw their purview as largely distinct from that of federal immigration enforcement agents. This essay briefly explains these developments, from shortly before the passage of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 through the present day, and assesses their consequences. It includes a brief discussion of the ways states and localities have responded to federal enforcement trends, whether through amplification or constraint.

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