signal detection
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2022 ◽  
Jamal Rodgers Williams ◽  
Maria Martinovna Robinson ◽  
Mark Schurgin ◽  
John Wixted ◽  
Timothy F. Brady

Change detection tasks are commonly used to measure and understand the nature of visual working memory capacity. Across two experiments, we examine whether the nature of the latent memory signals used to perform change detection are continuous or all-or-none, and consider the implications for proper measurement of performance. In Experiment 1, we find evidence from confidence reports that visual working memory is continuous in strength, with strong support for equal variance signal detection models. We then tested a critical implication of this result without relying on model comparison or confidence reports in Experiment 2 by asking whether a simple instruction change would improve performance when measured with K, an all-or-none-measure, compared to d’, a measure based on continuous strength signals. We found strong evidence that K values increased by roughly 30% despite no change in the underlying memory signals. By contrast, we found that d’ is fixed across these same instructions, demonstrating that it correctly separates response criterion from memory performance. Overall, our data call into question a large body of work using threshold measures, like K, to analyze change detection data since this metric confounds response bias with memory performance in standard change detection tasks.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xiangmin Ji ◽  
Guimei Cui ◽  
Chengzhen Xu ◽  
Jie Hou ◽  
Yunfei Zhang ◽  

Introduction: Improving adverse drug event (ADE) detection is important for post-marketing drug safety surveillance. Existing statistical approaches can be further optimized owing to their high efficiency and low cost.Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the proposed approach for use in pharmacovigilance, the early detection of potential ADEs, and the improvement of drug safety.Methods: We developed a novel integrated approach, the Bayesian signal detection algorithm, based on the pharmacological network model (ICPNM) using the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) data published from 2004 to 2009 and from 2014 to 2019Q2, PubChem, and DrugBank database. First, we used a pharmacological network model to generate the probabilities for drug-ADE associations, which comprised the proper prior information component (IC). We then defined the probability of the propensity score adjustment based on a logistic regression model to control for the confounding bias. Finally, we chose the Side Effect Resource (SIDER) and the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) data to evaluate the detection performance and robustness of the ICPNM compared with the statistical approaches [disproportionality analysis (DPA)] by using the area under the receiver operator characteristics curve (AUC) and Youden’s index.Results: Of the statistical approaches implemented, the ICPNM showed the best performance (AUC, 0.8291; Youden’s index, 0.5836). Meanwhile, the AUCs of the IC, EBGM, ROR, and PRR were 0.7343, 0.7231, 0.6828, and 0.6721, respectively.Conclusion: The proposed ICPNM combined the strengths of the pharmacological network model and the Bayesian signal detection algorithm and performed better in detecting true drug-ADE associations. It also detected newer ADE signals than a DPA and may be complementary to the existing statistical approaches.

2022 ◽  
Vol 70 (2) ◽  
pp. 3625-3636
Jae-Hyun Ro ◽  
Jong-Gyu Ha ◽  
Woon-Sang Lee ◽  
Young-Hwan You ◽  
Hyoung-Kyu Song

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-1
Changrun Chen ◽  
Weichao Xu ◽  
Yijin Pan ◽  
H Zhu ◽  
Jiangzhou Wang

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-1
Jinle Zhu ◽  
Ercong Yu ◽  
Qiang Li ◽  
Hongyang Chen ◽  
Shlomo Shamai

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