detection method
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
pp. 163-170
Lingfeng Shao ◽  
Guoqing Xu ◽  
Weiwei Wei ◽  
Xichun Zhang ◽  
Huiyun Li ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 59 (2) ◽  
pp. 102843
Jinqing Yang ◽  
Wei Lu ◽  
Jiming Hu ◽  
Shengzhi Huang

2022 ◽  
Vol 205 ◽  
pp. 107745
Mahdieh Adeli ◽  
Majid Hajatipour ◽  
Mohammad Javad Yazdanpanah ◽  
Hamed Hashemi-Dezaki ◽  
Mohsen Shafieirad

2022 ◽  
Vol 165 ◽  
pp. 108374
Kun Zhang ◽  
Peng Chen ◽  
Miaorui Yang ◽  
Liuyang Song ◽  
Yonggang Xu

2022 ◽  
Vol 246 ◽  
pp. 110587
Min-Chul Kong ◽  
Myung-Il Roh ◽  
Ki-Su Kim ◽  
Jeongyoul Lee ◽  
Jongoh Kim ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-24
Liuwang Kang ◽  
Haiying Shen

For a modern vehicle, if the sensor in a vehicle anti-lock braking system (ABS) or controller area network (CAN) bus is attacked during a brake process, the vehicle will lose driving direction control and the driver’s life will be highly threatened. However, current methods for detecting attacks are not sufficiently accurate, and no method can provide attack mitigation. To ensure vehicle ABS security, we propose an attack detection method to accurately detect both sensor attack (SA) and CAN bus attack in a vehicle ABS, and an attack mitigation strategy to mitigate their negative effects on the vehicle ABS. In our attack detection method, we build a vehicle state space equation that considers the real-time road friction coefficient to predict vehicle states (i.e., wheel speed and longitudinal brake force) with their previous values. Based on sets of historical measured vehicle states, we develop a search algorithm to find out attack changes (vehicle state changes because of attack) by minimizing errors between the predicted vehicle states and the measured vehicle states. In our attack mitigation strategy, attack changes are subtracted from the measured vehicle states to generate correct vehicle states for a vehicle ABS. We conducted the first real SA experiments to show how a magnet affects sensor readings. Our simulation results demonstrate that our attack detection method can detect SA and CAN bus attack more accurately compared with existing methods, and also that our attack mitigation strategy almost eliminates the attack’s effects on a vehicle ABS.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 403
Chongdi Duan ◽  
Yu Li ◽  
Weiwei Wang ◽  
Jianguo Li

With the rapid development of cooperative detection technology, target fusion detection with regard of LEO satellites can be realized by means of their diverse observation configurations. However, the existing constant false alarm ratio (CFAR) detection research rarely involves the space-based target fusion detection theory. In this paper, a novel multi-source fusion detection method based on LEO satellites is presented. Firstly, the pre-compensation function is constructed by employing the range and Doppler history of the cell where the antenna beam center is pointed. As a result, not only is the Doppler band broadening problem caused by the high-speed movement of the satellite platform, but the Doppler frequency rate (DFR) offset issue resulted from different observation configurations are alleviated synchronously. Then, the theoretical upper and lower limits of DFR are designed to achieve the effective clutter suppression and the accurate target echo fusion. Finally, the CFAR detection threshold based on the exponential weighted likelihood ratio is derived, which effectively increases the contrast ratio between the target cell and other background cells, and thus to provide an effective multi-source fusion detection method for LEO-based satellite constellation. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 631
Josip Lorincz ◽  
Ivana Ramljak ◽  
Dinko Begušić

Due to the capability of the effective usage of the radio frequency spectrum, a concept known as cognitive radio has undergone a broad exploitation in real implementations. Spectrum sensing as a core function of the cognitive radio enables secondary users to monitor the frequency band of primary users and its exploitation in periods of availability. In this work, the efficiency of spectrum sensing performed with the energy detection method realized through the square-law combining of the received signals at secondary users has been analyzed. Performance evaluation of the energy detection method was done for the wireless system in which signal transmission is based on Multiple-Input Multiple-Output—Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing. Although such transmission brings different advantages to wireless communication systems, the impact of noise variations known as noise uncertainty and the inability of selecting an optimal signal level threshold for deciding upon the presence of the primary user signal can compromise the sensing precision of the energy detection method. Since the energy detection may be enhanced by dynamic detection threshold adjustments, this manuscript analyses the influence of detection threshold adjustments and noise uncertainty on the performance of the energy detection spectrum sensing method in single-cell cognitive radio systems. For the evaluation of an energy detection method based on the square-law combining technique, the mathematical expressions of the main performance parameters used for the assessment of spectrum sensing efficiency have been derived. The developed expressions were further assessed by executing the algorithm that enabled the simulation of the energy detection method based on the square-law combining technique in Multiple-Input Multiple-Output—Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing cognitive radio systems. The obtained simulation results provide insights into how different levels of detection threshold adjustments and noise uncertainty affect the probability of detection of primary user signals. It is shown that higher signal-to-noise-ratios, the transmitting powers of primary user, the number of primary user transmitting and the secondary user receiving antennas, the number of sampling points and the false alarm probabilities improve detection probability. The presented analyses establish the basis for understanding the energy detection operation through the possibility of exploiting the different combinations of operating parameters which can contribute to the improvement of spectrum sensing efficiency of the energy detection method.

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