Thyroid Cancer
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Gwenaelle Creff ◽  
Franck Jegoux ◽  
Marc Karim Bendiane ◽  
Emmanuel Babin ◽  
Idlir Licaj

2021 ◽  
pp. 172460082110575
Ligia C.A. Cardoso-Duarte ◽  
Caroline F. Fratelli ◽  
Alexandre S.R. Pereira ◽  
Jéssica Nayane Gomes de Souza ◽  
Renata de Souza Freitas ◽  

Introduction Papillary thyroid cancer corresponds to approximately 1% of all carcinomas; nevertheless, it is the most prevalent endocrine neoplasm in the world. Studies reveal that the BAX (−248 G > A) polymorphism may be associated with negative regulation of BAX gene transcription activity, causing a decrease in its protein expression. Objective The present study aimed to describe the genotype and allele frequencies of BAX single nucleotide polymorphisms (−248 G > A) (rs4645878) in the research patients, and to associate its presence with susceptibility to papillary thyroid cancer. Methods This case-control study was conducted with 30 patients with papillary thyroid cancer. For the evaluation of genetic polymorphisms, the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique was employed. Allele and genotype frequencies were estimated using the SPSS program, and significant associations were considered when p < 0.05. Results There was a significant genotypic difference between papillary thyroid cancer and the control group (p = 0.042). The GG genotype provided a protective factor for papillary thyroid cancer (p = 0.012, odds ratio (OR) = 0.313; confidence interval (CI) = 0.123–0.794). Likewise the G allele was a protective factor for papillary thyroid cancer (p = 0.009; OR = 0.360; CI = 0.163–0.793). The BAX gene polymorphism (−248 G > A) was associated with papillary thyroid cancer. Conclusion BAX (−248 G > A) GG genotype carriers, or at least one mutated allele, was associated with papillary thyroid cancer in the Brazilian population studied, and the G allele presence is considered a protective factor against papillary thyroid cancer occurrence.

E. A. Gudilina ◽  
T. Yu. Danzanova ◽  
P. I. Lepedatu ◽  
G. T. Sinyukova

Purpose: Determination of informative value of a new method of ultrasound tomography, based on the properties of elasticity of soft tissues, in the differential diagnosis of metastatic lesions of the lymph nodes of the neck thyroid cancer.Material and methods: To assess the capabilities of shear wave ultrasound elastometry in the diagnosis of metastatic lesions of the lymph nodes in thyroid cancer, a study was carried out with 45 patients with suspected thyroid cancer. The work was performed by devices Acuson S2000 Siemens, Avius hi vision Hitachi using a linear sensor with a frequency of 5–12 MHz. For each object of the study, from 5 to 10 measurements of the shear wave velocity in m / s were made, depending on the size of the lymph nodes.Results: Reliable results were obtained in the group of altered lymph nodes (statistical significance p < 0.05). Interquartile intervals and the most common values of shear wave velocities do not overlap: in metastases — 2.20– 3.36 m/s, with hyperplasia of lymph nodes — 0.70–1.88 m/s, and medians show a significant difference in velocities: metastases — 3.00 m/s, hyperplastic lymph nodes 1.38 m/s.Conclusions: Shear wave elastography objectifies ultrasound studies, obtaining specific indicators of shear wave velocity in the areas of interest, and can be used as an additional diagnostic tool in the differential diagnosis of metastatic and hyperplastic lymph nodes.

Yu Ren ◽  
Hongyu Liang ◽  
Xiao Wang ◽  
Zhongwei Cao ◽  
Yuzhen Ma ◽  

Increasing evidence indicates that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are initiators of the occurrence, development, and recurrence of malignant tumors. Mitochondria are important organelles in eukaryotic cells, not only responsible for converting part of energy released during nutrients oxidation into the energy-yielding molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to fuel the activities of cell, but also play essential roles in processes such as cell apoptosis and cellular proliferation. The mitochondrial-related abnormalities have also been considered to have an important role in the origin and development of tumors. This study aimed at testing the abnormalities in mitochondrial function and energy/metabolism-related phenotypes in thyroid cancer stem cells (TCSCs). TCSCs were isolated and identified from MDA-T32 thyroid carcinoma cell line. The mitochondrial mass and mitochondrial arrangement, amount of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), oxygen/glucose consumption, and intracellular concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ATP levels were examined. Perinuclear mitochondrial distribution, low amount of mtDNA and oxygen/glucose consumption, high MMP, and low intracellular ROS and ATP concentrations were observed in TCSCs. Alterations in mitochondrial function and cellular energy metabolism may be used as novel indicators of thyroid cancer.

2021 ◽  
pp. 172460082110569
Hongpeng Wang ◽  
Yixiu Liu ◽  
Yanguang Zhao

Background Previous studies have reported that hepatitis C virus infection may increase the risk of thyroid disease and even thyroid cancer, but quantitative assessments of risk were rare and the results were not consistent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of hepatitis C virus infection on thyroid disease and thyroid cancer, and to provide clues to explore their relationship. Methods A literature retrieval was performed up to August 20, 2021 in the database of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wang Fang. The risk of hepatitis C virus for thyroid disease or thyroid cancer was expressed with odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Subgroup analysis was used to explore the source of heterogeneity. Eight articles (Five studies published as articles and three as abstracts) were included in this meta-analysis, with a total of 5398 controls and 1925 cases of hepatitis C. Results The results of a meta-analysis found that hepatitis C virus infection was significantly associated with an increased risk of thyroid disease (sum OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.54–2.10, P < 0.001, I2 = 74.3%) and thyroid cancer (sum OR = 16.74, 95% CI = 4.78–58.55, P < 0.001, I2 = 0%). Hepatitis C virus infection may increase the risk of thyroid disease and thyroid cancer. Conclusion More work is needed in the future to establish a causal role; however, an awareness of the possibility of increased risk of thyroid disease and thyroid cancer may lead to earlier diagnosis and better outcomes in patients with hepatitis C.

A. Yu. Shurinov ◽  
V. V. Krylov ◽  
E. V. Borodavina

Thyroid cancer is the most common oncological pathology of the endocrine system organs with a continuing trend towards an increase in the incidence. Radioiodine therapy (RIT) is the second stage of combined treatment, it is carried out only as an adjuvant treatment, it is an uncontested method of radio-targeted therapy for distant metastases of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The method of radioiodine therapy is based on the unique natural affinity of iodine atoms for the follicular epithelium of the thyroid gland and DTC cells. Determination of indications for RIT is based on stratification of recurrence risk, persistence, and disease prevalence. Over the past 15 years, the world’s leading professional communities have repeatedly revised approaches to risk stratification. Consideration of the mutational profile of the tumor and the theranostic approach have become significant innovations.Radioiodine therapy can be presented in the form of three modes: ablation of residual thyroid tissue, treatment of residual tumor and treatment of distant metastases. These regimens differ in the administered therapeutic activity of 131I, which looks logical from the point of view of the necessary personalization of the treatment. At the same time, in scientific circles, disputes about the absence of significant differences in the used therapeutic activities of 131I prescribed for radioiodine ablation outside the personalized approach do not subside.

2021 ◽  
Vol 24 (2) ◽  
pp. 33-40
Gagik E. Pogosyan ◽  
Andrey V. Grechko ◽  
Sergey N. Puzin ◽  
Marina A. Shurgaya ◽  
Servir S. Memetov

BACKGROUND: The most common malignant neoplasm of the endocrine system is thyroid cancer. In Russia, as in other countries of the world, the incidence rate is steadily increasing. Thus, it is extremely important to assess the problem of health disorders due to thyroid cancer within the framework of socially significant disability caused by malignant neoplasms in the Russian Federation. AIMS: To analyze the spectrum of types and degree of disability in people with disabilities due to thyroid cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The article presents the results of the analysis of the spectrum of the main types of disability in the general contingent of disabled people due to thyroid cancer among the adult population of Moscow (20152019). RESULTS: The dynamics of disability both in the contingent of first recognized and in the contingent of re-recognized disabled people (VPI and PPI) was characterized by an increase in the number of disabled people and the transformation of the structure of general disability. There is a clear change in the ratio towards an increase in the share of PPI from 55.1% in 2015. up to 68.0% in 2019, while the share of VPI decreased from 44.9% in 2015 to 32.0% in 2019. The predominant gender cohort was women, and the age category was the elderly. The main types of life restrictions were the restriction of the ability to self-serve (98.6% of the VPI and 97.9% of the PPI), to work (94.7% of the VPI and 94.6% of the PPI) and to move (21.3% of the VPI, 21.8% of the PPI). A low proportion of restrictions on the ability to control ones behavior, learning, communication and orientation was revealed (0.31.2%). The first degree of disability prevailed in the contingents of VPI and PPI (p 0.0001). In the contingent of men, the proportion of disabled people with the third degree of disability was higher compared to the contingent of women. CONCLUSION: Dynamic assessment of the degree of severity of functional disorders and associated life restrictions should be carried out at all stages of medical and social rehabilitation in order to monitor the effectiveness of medical and rehabilitation measures, assess the quality of life and prevent progression (secondary prevention of disability).

2021 ◽  
Vol 67 (3) ◽  
pp. 85-91
Al Essa M

In an assessment of risk for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in individuals with human papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and thyroid nodules a cohort prospective study was undertaken to establish the significance of preoperative thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. Confirmed histologically PTC cases in one tertiary care center, and matched healthy individuals were tested for TSH, T3, T4 and T4 free total. The ORs and 95% confidence intervals have been calculated using conditional logistic regression models (CI). The blood TSH levels were related to the higher risk of PTC for men (OR,0,09; 95% Ci, 04–0,21, 95% CI and women) compared with the middle tertile of the TSH levels in the normal range (OR,0,07; 95 percent CI, 0,04–0,1). Over the normal range of TSH levels, an elevated PTC risks were connected amongst women (OR 0,09; 95% CI, 0,04–0,21) but not amongst men (OR,0,07; 95% CI, 0,04–0,1). With an increase in TSH level in the normal range between men and women, the risk for PTC reduced (Ptrend=0.041 and 0.0001). The risk of PTC related to TSH levels has been dramatically elevated above  the normal range for men  and TSH values below the normal range for women.

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