Air Pollution
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Kazuya Yamaguchi ◽  
Kenichi Iida

<p>In these days, electric vehicles are enthusiastically researched as a countermeasure to air pollution, although these do not have practicality compared to gasoline-powered vehicles. The aim of this study is to transport energy wirelessly and efficiently to an electric vehicle. To accomplish this, we focused on frequency of an alternating current (AC) power supply, and suggested a method which determined the value of it constantly. In particular, a wireless power transfer circuit and a lithium-ion battery in an electric vehicle were expressed with an equivalent circuit, and efficiency of energy transfer was calculated. Furthermore, the optimal frequency which maximizes efficiency was found, and the behavior of voltage was demonstrated on a secondary circuit. Finally, we could obtain the larger electromotive force at the secondary inductor than an input voltage.</p>

2022 ◽  
Vol 160 ◽  
pp. 107085
Yiyi Xu ◽  
Eva M Andersson ◽  
Hanne Krage Carlsen ◽  
Peter Molnár ◽  
Susanna Gustafsson ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 160 ◽  
pp. 107067
Jing Wu ◽  
Giulia Grande ◽  
Massimo Stafoggia ◽  
Petter Ljungman ◽  
Erika J. Laukka ◽  

Wilhen Huaman Hinostroza ◽  
Brian Meneses Claudio ◽  
Alexi Delgado

One of the big problems in the city of Cerro de Pasco is the air pollution caused by the mining activity that occurs in this area, this activity generates a total of 3737 metric tons per year of particulate matter, which are thrown into the environment in an alarming way, thus reaching that this particulate matter can lodge inside the organism of the inhabitants permanently, causing in them diseases in the respiratory system, thus affecting the most vulnerable population, producing in them infections in the respiratory tract that can even carry those to death. Nowadays the teams that carry out the monitoring of air quality are restricted only to the academic and governmental sphere, so much so that the population does not know the degree of air pollution. For this reason, it is proposed to carry out a system to measure the level of air pollution taking as main data, the measurement of particulate matter and the emission of carbon monoxide, the data that can be recovered from these measurements to be able to compare them with the parameters dictated by the Ministry of the Environment. As a result, an autonomous system was obtained, with which the level of particulate matter, possible toxic gases, and the measurement of the level of carbon monoxide can be measured, all these pollutants that could be in the environment, all these measurements are constant, thus leading the population to become aware of the level of quality of the environment where they live. Keywords- Environmental pollution, articulated matter, carbon monoxide, toxic gases, mining activity, air quality

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Luca Boniardi ◽  
Federica Nobile ◽  
Massimo Stafoggia ◽  
Paola Michelozzi ◽  
Carla Ancona

Abstract Background Air pollution is one of the main concerns for the health of European citizens, and cities are currently striving to accomplish EU air pollution regulation. The 2020 COVID-19 lockdown measures can be seen as an unintended but effective experiment to assess the impact of traffic restriction policies on air pollution. Our objective was to estimate the impact of the lockdown measures on NO2 concentrations and health in the two largest Italian cities. Methods NO2 concentration datasets were built using data deriving from a 1-month citizen science monitoring campaign that took place in Milan and Rome just before the Italian lockdown period. Annual mean NO2 concentrations were estimated for a lockdown scenario (Scenario 1) and a scenario without lockdown (Scenario 2), by applying city-specific annual adjustment factors to the 1-month data. The latter were estimated deriving data from Air Quality Network stations and by applying a machine learning approach. NO2 spatial distribution was estimated at a neighbourhood scale by applying Land Use Random Forest models for the two scenarios. Finally, the impact of lockdown on health was estimated by subtracting attributable deaths for Scenario 1 and those for Scenario 2, both estimated by applying literature-based dose–response function on the counterfactual concentrations of 10 μg/m3. Results The Land Use Random Forest models were able to capture 41–42% of the total NO2 variability. Passing from Scenario 2 (annual NO2 without lockdown) to Scenario 1 (annual NO2 with lockdown), the population-weighted exposure to NO2 for Milan and Rome decreased by 15.1% and 15.3% on an annual basis. Considering the 10 μg/m3 counterfactual, prevented deaths were respectively 213 and 604. Conclusions Our results show that the lockdown had a beneficial impact on air quality and human health. However, compliance with the current EU legal limit is not enough to avoid a high number of NO2 attributable deaths. This contribution reaffirms the potentiality of the citizen science approach and calls for more ambitious traffic calming policies and a re-evaluation of the legal annual limit value for NO2 for the protection of human health.

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