Physical Activity
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2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (5) ◽  
pp. 571-577
Author(s):  
Judi Forner ◽  
Andrea Doughty ◽  
Matthew Dalstrom ◽  
Brandie Messer ◽  
Shannon Lizer

2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (5) ◽  
pp. E50-E56
Author(s):  
Susan Bruce ◽  
Nicole Scholl ◽  
Jennifer Mulvey ◽  
Daniel Hatch ◽  
Deborah "Hutch" Allen

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jonathan Mathias Baier ◽  
Kristian Løkke Funck ◽  
Liv Vernstrøm ◽  
Esben Laugesen ◽  
Per Løgstrup Poulsen

Abstract Background The long-term association between physical activity and endothelial function has not previously been investigated in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between physical activity and endothelial function, assessed by peripheral arterial tonometry, in patients with type 2 diabetes and non-diabetic controls after 5 years of follow-up. Methods We included 51 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and 53 sex- and age matched controls. Participants underwent baseline clinical characterization including objective measurement of physical activity level using accelerometery. After 5 years of follow-up, participants were re-examined, and endothelial function was assessed as natural logarithm of reactive hyperemia index (lnRHI). Results Physical activity at baseline was associated with lnRHI after 5 years of follow-up in both patients with type 2 diabetes and controls. An increase of 1 standard deviation (SD) in daytime physical activity corresponded to a 6.7 % increase in RHI (95 % confidence interval: 1.1;12.5 %, p = 0.02). We found no difference in lnRHI between patients with diabetes and controls (0.67 ± 0.29 vs. 0.73 ± 0.31, p = 0.28). Conclusions Daytime physical activity is associated with endothelial function after 5 years of follow-up in patients with type 2 diabetes and controls.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Riccardo D’Ambrosi ◽  
Alessandro Nuara ◽  
Ilaria Mariani ◽  
Katia Corona ◽  
Stefan Mogos ◽  
...  

Abstract Background The primary purpose of the present prospective study was to consecutively analyse the outcomes of the return to sports activity of patients with positive patch tests undergoing a medial mobile-bearing titanium niobium nitride (TiNbN) unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). The secondary purpose was to ascertain if a higher grade of physical activity leads to a reduction in the body mass index (BMI) of the patients. Material and methods Forty-one patients with positive skin patch tests were included in this prospective study. The clinical evaluation consisted of the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) activity scale and the High-Activity Arthroplasty Score (HAAS). Each patient was evaluated the day before surgery (T0), after 12.37 ± 0.70 months (T1), and on the day of the final follow-up, after 67.03 ± 18.2 months (T2). Furthermore, the BMI of each patient was analysed before surgery and during the final follow-up. Results The UCLA and HAAS mean preoperative values ranged from 3.68 ± 1.1.7 and 6.15 ± 0.76 to 6.1 ± 0.76 and 10.34 ± 1.3, respectively, at T1 (p < 0.0001) and to the final values of 6.34 ± 0.62 and 11.0 ± 8.9, respectively, at T2 (UCLA: T2 versus T1: p = 0.132; T2 versus T0: p < 0.0001; HAAS: T2 versus T1: p = 0.0027; T2 versus T0: p < 0.001). BMI ranged from a preoperative value of 27.97 ± 3.63 to a final value of 26.84 ± 3.11 (p < 0.0001). The only differences within the subgroups concerned patients with BMI ≥ 28, showing a superior HAAS at each follow-up (p < 0.05). A positive correlation was found between BMI and HAAS at T0 and T2 (p < 0.05). Conclusions This is the first study to evaluate the rate of the return to sports activities and change in BMI following hypoallergenic UKA. The majority of patients reduced their weight following UKA and improved their physical activity, showing outcomes that were comparable to the standard cobalt–chrome (CoCr) prostheses, regardless of gender, age, BMI and implant size. Level of evidence IV – Prospective Cohort Study. Trial registration researchregistry5978—Research Registry www.researchregistry.com


2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (4) ◽  
pp. 15-21
Author(s):  
I. O. Marazha ◽  
◽  
D. I. Nazarova ◽  
S. B. Kramar ◽  
◽  
...  

The purpose of the study is to analyze the impact of type 2 diabetes on the skin, to establish the pathogenesis and analysis of modern treatments. Materials and methods. The materials and methods of research were theoretical analysis of scientific literature; statistical methods of literature data analysis, comparative analysis and classification according to the protocol of the international prospective study International Prevalence and Treatment of Diabetes and Depression (INTERPRET-DD). The emphasis is placed on the relevance of research in ways to treat diabetes as a serious disease with high mortality. The statistical indicators of the disease are given and the percentages of disability are indicated. The pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus is considered and risk factors for the disease are listed. Some diabetic-associated skin symptoms are said to be a direct result of metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Progressive damage to the vascular, nervous or immune systems also greatly contributes to the development of skin manifestations. Early medication of insulin should be considered in case of continuous weight loss, symptoms of hyperglycemia or HbA1c in blood > 10% (86 mmole/mole) or plasma glucose ≥300 mg/dL (≥16.7 mmole/l). In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with cardiovascular diseases of atherosclerotic etiology or high risk, diabetic kidney disease or heart failure, it is recommended to use inhibitors of the sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter of the type 2 or agonists of the glucagon-1 peptide receptor, which are effective with cardiovascular diseases, regardless of the level of HbA1c in the blood, taking into account individual factors. Conclusion. It was found that the initial treatment, according to the World Health Organization in 2020, should begin with the appointment of metformin, which is a first-line drug for the treatment of patients, that does not cause weight gain, does not provoke hypoglycemia and is recommended for the treatment of people who do not reach the desired level of glycemia through diet and physical activity. It is emphasized that diabetes should be treated comprehensively: diet, physical activity, metformin. Metformin drugs are the basic therapy and should be prescribed in any situation in the presence of disorders of carbohydrate metabolism and if there are no contraindications to their use. It is important to increase the dosage of metformin gradually according to the diabetes management protocol: all hypoglycemic drugs should be titrated from the lowest dosage to that necessary to ensure good compensation of carbohydrate indices. Intensification of treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in case of failure to achieve the main goals of therapy should be timely


Author(s):  
Jonatan Fridolfsson ◽  
Daniel Arvidsson ◽  
Lars Bo Andersen ◽  
Ola Thorsson ◽  
Per Wollmer ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
pp. 001789692110441
Author(s):  
Leo De Winter ◽  
Leslie Morrison Gutman

Objective: Despite its importance for mental and physical health, many adults fail to meet current physical activity recommendations. Furthermore, most adults who begin a physical activity programme revert to being less active or even inactive within the first 6 months. Fitness bootcamps represent a potential intervention for improving physical activity in healthy adults. However, no study to date has examined the influences on long-term participation in fitness bootcamps, which is the first step to developing an effective intervention. Using the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) framework, this study identified the facilitators and barriers to long-term (1 year or more) fitness bootcamp participation, which were then linked to behaviour change techniques (BCTs) to facilitate intervention development. Design: Qualitative research design. Setting: Data collection occurred in England. Method: Interviews were conducted with 15 long-term fitness bootcamp participants. Results: Thematic analysis revealed 17 facilitators and 6 barriers to long-term fitness bootcamp participation. Participants highlighted the importance of facilitators such as convenience, being outdoors and enjoyment. The social environment, including having a positive instructor and supportive group members, was further noted as a key influence on participation. While long-term participants faced occasional barriers to their routine such as physical injury, bad weather and competing events, the impact of these could be minimised through appropriate BCTs such as ‘demonstration of the behaviour’ and ‘restructuring the social/physical environment’. Conclusion: Findings from this study highlight the importance of social and environmental factors to promoting long-term fitness bootcamp participation and the inclusion of social and physical environmental restructuring as key intervention components.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (18) ◽  
pp. 8655
Author(s):  
Petr Kutac ◽  
Marek Buzga ◽  
Steriani Elavsky ◽  
Vaclav Bunc ◽  
Daniel Jandacka ◽  
...  

Regular physical activity (PA) plays an important role in the prevention of several noninfectious chronic diseases, partly due to its positive effects on body composition. The relationship between the amount of weekly PA and body composition in premenopausal women, however, remains unclear. The objective of the study is to assess the relationship between body composition and the volume of PA in full-time employed premenopausal women. The study included 136 women (aged 41.07 ± 2.77 years). The women were divided into tertiles (T1–T3) according to the level of total reported weekly PA. T1 were women with the lowest volume of PA, T2 were women with a medium volume, and T3 were women with the highest PA volume. DXA was used to measure body mass (BM), body fat (BF), visceral fat (VFA), and fat-free mass (FFM). For the comparison of means, we used one-way ANOVA and a t test. Practical significance was verified with effect of size. Significant differences were found between women in T1 vs. T2 and T1 vs. T3. When compared with T2, T1 women had a higher BM (+6.10 kg), BF (+5.98 kg), BF (+5.42%), and VF (+17.49 cm2). When compared with T3, T1 women had a higher BM (+5.99 kg), BF (+6.42 kg), BF (+5.89%), and VFA (+20.71 cm2). We can conclude that a higher volume of weekly PA is associated with lower BF, but appears to have no effect on FFM.


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