The aim of our study was to evaluate the associations between sensitivity to fat taste, eating habits and BMI value in a sample of menopausal Polish women. In a population of 95 women, fat taste thresholds with oleic acid were determined, allowing us to classify each woman as a hypersensitive or hyposensitive taster. Eating habits were assessed using a validated KomPAN questionnaire for food frequency. Dietary intake was evaluated based on a food diary. Selected biochemical parameters were measured using a Konelab20i biochemical analyzer. Anthropometric parameters and blood pressure were also measured. Twenty-two menopausal women were classified as hyposensitive to fat taste and 73 as hypersensitive. The hyposensitive tasters were significantly older (p = 0.006), with the majority of them (92%) being postmenopausal (p < 0.001); this group had significantly higher BMI values (p < 0.001) and other adiposity indicators compared to their hypersensitive counterparts. The hyposensitive tasters had higher blood pressure (systolic blood pressure; SBP p = 0.030; diastolic blood pressure; DBP p = 0.003), glucose (p = 0.011) and triacylglycerols levels than the hypersensitive tasters (p = 0.031). Almost half of them had diagnosed metabolic syndrome. Daily eating occasions were associated with low oral fatty acid sensitivity, irrespective of age (p = 0.041) and BMI value (p = 0.028). There were also significant associations between frequency of consumption of meats and eggs, as well as snacks and fast foods and low oral fatty acid sensitivity before adjustment for potential confounders (both associations p < 0.05), which remained after adjustment for age (both associations p < 0.05), but not after adjustment for BMI. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that higher BMI value (p = 0.003), along with postmenopausal status (p = 0.003), were associated with low fat taste sensitivity irrespective of age and consumed percentage energy from fat. Postmenopausal status and BMI are associated with low fat taste sensitivity. Fat hyposensitivity may also play a role in eating habits, leading to increased eating occasions and favoring certain types of food. These eating habits may determine increased body weight and the occurrence of metabolic syndrome in mid-life women, especially those who have undergone menopause and have been exposed to the physiological changes which are conducive to these relationships.
Declining gustatory function, nutrition, and oral health are important elements of health in older adults that can affect the aging process. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of age and oral status on taste discrimination in two different groups of elderly subjects living either in an Italian residential institution (TG) or in the community (CG). A total of 90 subjects were enrolled in the study (58 CG vs. 32 TG). Masticatory performance (MP) was assessed using the two-color mixing ability test. Taste function was evaluated using cotton pads soaked with six taste stimuli (salty, acid, sweet, bitter, fat and water). A positive correlation between age and missing teeth (r = 0.51, C.I. [0.33; 0.65], p < 0.0001), and a negative correlation between age and MP (r = −0.39, C.I. [−0.56; −0.20], p < 0.001) were found. Moreover, significant differences for salty taste, between TG and CG were detected (p < 0.05). Significant differences in bitter taste sensitivity between subjects wearing removable and non-removable prosthesis were also determined (p < 0.05). In addition, significant gender differences and between males in TG and CG were identified (p < 0.05). The best understanding of the relationship between MP, taste sensitivity, and nutritional factors is a necessary criterion for the development of new therapeutic strategies to address more effectively the problems associated with malnutrition in elderly subjects.
Chemesthesis is a part of the flavor experience of foods. Chemesthetic perception is studied to understand its effect on food-related behavior and health. Thus, the objective of this research was to study individual differences in chemesthetic perception. Our study involved sensory tests of three chemesthetic modalities (astringency, pungency, and cooling). Participants (N = 196) evaluated the intensity of samples in different concentrations using a line scale under sensory laboratory conditions. Aluminum ammonium sulfate, capsaicin, and menthol were used as the prototypic chemesthetic compounds. The participants were divided into sensitivity groups in different chemesthetic modalities by hierarchical clustering based on their intensity ratings. In addition, an oral chemesthesis sensitivity score was determined to represent the generalized chemesthesis sensitivity. The results showed that people can perceive chemesthesis on different intensity levels. There were significantly positive correlations between (1) sensitivity scores for oral chemesthesis and taste as well as (2) each chemesthesis and taste modalities. Moreover, based on the multinomial logistic regression model, significant interactions between oral chemesthesis and taste sensitivity were discovered. Our findings showed that people can be classified into different oral chemesthesis sensitivity groups. The methods and results of this study can be utilized to investigate associations with food-related behavior and health.
Background: Taste sensitivity has been reported to influence children’s eating behaviour and contribute to their food preferences and intake. This study aimed to investigate the associations between taste sensitivity and eating behaviour in preadolescents. Methods: Children’s taste sensitivity was measured by detection threshold with five different concentration levels of sweetness (sucrose), sourness (citric acid), saltiness (sodium chloride), bitterness (caffeine, quinine), and umami (monosodium glutamate). In addition, the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ), the Food Propensity Questionnaire (FPQ), and the children’s body weight and height were completed by the parents. Children conducted the sensory evaluation test at schools while parents completed the questionnaires online. Results: A total of 69 child-parent dyads participated. Taste sensitivity was significantly associated with eating behaviour in food responsiveness, emotional overeating, and desire to drink. Children who were less sensitive to caffeine bitterness (higher detection threshold) had higher food responsiveness scores, while those who were less sensitive to sweetness and caffeine bitterness had higher emotional overeating scores. In addition, children who were less sensitive to sourness and bitterness of both caffeine and quinine demonstrated to have higher scores in desire to drink. There was no association between taste sensitivity and FPQ, but significant differences were observed across children’s body mass index (BMI) regarding their FPQ of dairy food items, indicating higher consumption of low-fat milk in the overweight/obese compared to the normal-weight subjects. There was no significant difference in taste sensitivity according to BMI. Children’s eating behaviour differed across BMI, demonstrating a positive association between BMI and food approach, and a negative association between BMI and food avoidance. Conclusions: This study contributes to the preliminary understanding of the relationships between taste sensitivity and eating behaviour in preadolescents which could be used to develop effective strategies to promote healthy eating practices in children by considering their taste sensitivity.
Objective — to determine the features of dental complaints and the threshold of taste sensitivity of the tongue receptors to glucose in patients with non‑alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) against the background of insulin resistance.
Materials and methods. The study included 65 patients (29 (44.6 %) women and 36 (55.4 %) men) with NAFLD (the main group) and 24 somatically healthy subjects. The mean body mass index was 36.4 kg/m2 in the main group, and 22.8 kg/m2 in the controls. All patients had insulin resistance (НОМА index — 8.0). Dental examinations included questionnaires of patients with complaints’ detailing, clinical examination of the oral cavity, study of salivation rate, determination of the sensitivity of the taste receptors of the tongue to glucose by the method of gustometry.
Results. It has been established that the mostly frequent complaints of patients in the main group were constant dry mouth, taste distortion and halitosis. They demonstrated a decrease in salivation rate up to 0.24 ± 0.13 ml per minute, changes in the taste sensitivity of the tongue to sweet, that was several times higher than the threshold of the physiological norm. The strong direct correlation has been proved between oral dryness and salivation rate. Correlations of moderate strength were confirmed between the secretion rate and glucose concentration according to gustometry, and between taste distortion and halitosis.
Conclusions. Almost 90 % of patients with non‑alcoholic fatty liver disease have typical dental complaints. Questioning patients on the main dental complaints, studying the parameters of the oral fluid and threshold gustometry are the modern, non‑invasive methods, enabling the control of the disease course and assessment of the treatment efficacy.