Bioactive Compounds
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Horticulturae ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (12) ◽  
pp. 535
Author(s):  
Piyachat Sunanta ◽  
Tanachai Pankasemsuk ◽  
Kittisak Jantanasakulwong ◽  
Thanongsak Chaiyaso ◽  
Noppol Leksawasdi ◽  
...  

This research examined the changes of black garlic (BG) quality attributes when raw materials of different initial moisture contents (iMC) were used. Fresh garlic bulbs (cv. Thai) were shade-dried for eight weeks at a controlled condition at 29 °C and relative humidity (RH) of 55% to the desired iMC (ranging from ca. 50–70%). BG processing was at 75 °C, RH = 80% for ten days. After processing, physiological characteristics and chemical properties of garlic were determined. Results illustrated that fresh garlic with higher moisture content (ca. 70%) resulted in BG of a dark brown colour, sloppy texture, and lesser acidity (pH = 4.44), while samples with lower iMCs (<50%) gave products that were completely black, elastic in texture, and with higher acidity (pH = 3.79). The analysed bioactive compounds, as well as their antioxidative potentials, suggested that the longer the curing time, the higher the functional properties of the finished products, possessing a total phenolic, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of 15.54 mg/kg dry matter sample, 1.53 mg/kg dry matter sample, and 95.39%, respectively. Principle component analysis (PCA) of active metabolites confirmed that sulfur, S-allyl-L-cysteine, and flavonoid were among the main phytochemicals found in the BG. In summary, higher quality BG can be achieved by using raw materials of lower iMC.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yi-Zhen Huang ◽  
Zheng Jin ◽  
Zhe-Ming Wang ◽  
Li-Bo Qi ◽  
Shuang Song ◽  
...  

Oral diseases have received considerable attention worldwide as one of the major global public health problems. The development of oral diseases is influenced by socioeconomic, physiological, traumatic, biological, dietary and hygienic practices factors. Currently, the main prevention strategy for oral diseases is to inhibit the growth of biofilm-producing plaque bacteria. Tooth brushing is the most common method of cleaning plaque, aided by mouthwash and sugar-free chewing gum in the daily routine. As the global nutraceutical market grows, marine bioactive compounds are becoming increasingly popular among consumers for their antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties. However, to date, few systematic summaries and studies on the application of marine bioactive compounds in oral health exist. This review provides a comprehensive overview of different marine-sourced bioactive compounds and their health benefits in dental caries, gingivitis, periodontitis, halitosis, oral cancer, and their potential use as functional food ingredients for oral health. In addition, limitations and challenges of the application of these active ingredients are discussed and some observations on current work and future trends are presented in the conclusion section.


Author(s):  
Nur Syazwani Hanafi ◽  
Rosnani Hasham ◽  
Nor Zalina Othman ◽  
Mohamad Roji Sarmidi

The use of freeze drying process to prolong the shelf life of food products is considered mainstream in food industries due to its capability to retain the nutritional value. Citric acid and osmotic solution were used as a pre-treatment in this study to produce high-quality dried products. Four treatment groups were observed, including untreated (control), 1% citric acid (CA), 1% CA with 20% sugar solution (CAOD 20%), and 1% CA with 60% sugar solution (CAOD 60%). Physical properties such as moisture content; pH; total soluble solid; colour value; and bioactive compounds, such as vitamin C, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activities were evaluated in freeze-dried pineapples. The result showed that CAOD 60% demonstrated a positive effect, with the least moisture content and the lowest value of colour changes (ΔE) at 5.69 ± 0.04% and 33.76 ± 2.17, respectively, as compared with that of other samples. In terms of phytochemical, the control and CA groups recorded higher retention of vitamin C, TPC, and TFC compared with other osmotic dehydration samples; however, there was no significant effect (p<0.05) on TPC and TFC. Interestingly, CAOD 60% possessed strong antioxidant activity, with the lowest IC50 value of 85.85 ± 5.93. From these findings, it was found that CAOD 60% resulted in positive effect on both the physical qualities and preservation of antioxidant activity, making it a recommended condition for pre-treatment in fruit preservation, which is essential in ensuring both the food security aspect and maintenance of its nutritional value.


Pharmaceutics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (12) ◽  
pp. 2054
Author(s):  
Jeyson Hermosilla ◽  
Edgar Pastene-Navarrete ◽  
Francisca Acevedo

Burns are a major threat to public health and the economy due to their costly and laborious treatment and high susceptibility to infection. Efforts have been made recently to investigate natural bioactive compounds with potential use in wound healing. The importance lies in the capacities that these compounds could possess both in infection control by common and resistant microorganisms, as well as in the regeneration of the affected tissues, having in both cases low adverse effects. However, some bioactive molecules are chemically unstable, poorly soluble, and susceptible to oxidative degradation or have low bioavailability. Therefore, developing new technologies for an efficient treatment of wound healing poses a real challenge. In this context, electrospun nanofibers have gained increasing research interest because bioactive molecules can be easily loaded within the nanofiber, resulting in optimal burst control and enhanced drug stability. Additionally, the nanofibers can mimic the extracellular collagen matrix, providing a suitable highly porous structural support for growing cells that facilitate and accelerate skin burns healing. This review gives an overview of the current state of electrospun fibers loaded with natural bioactive compounds as a biomedical system for skin burn treatment.


2021 ◽  
Vol 34 ◽  
pp. v-viii
Author(s):  
Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan ◽  
Sascha Rohn ◽  
Michael N.A. Eskin ◽  
Charis M. Galanakis

2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Smita Mishra ◽  
Varsha Mehra

Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be one of the world's leading causes of death by the infectious pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which infects one-third of the global population. The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic made its spread rapid and the treatment task more daunting. With the havoc of infectious disease expansion, traditional medicines have triggered tremendous interest worldwide. However, less availability of scientific evidence still hinders its practical use. In the present study, we evaluated the potential of the traditional medicinal plant, Justicia adhatoda, which has been used to treat respiratory ailments since ancient times. We have successfully isolated and characterized several bioactive compounds viz- Vasicoline, Vasicolinone, Adhatodine, Adhavasine, Aniflorine, and Vasicinone from J. adhatoda plant leaves, including Vasicine as the principal compound, and showed their anti-tubercular activity on nutrient-starved Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium bovis. The study also directs their in-vitro and ex-vivo antimycobacterial potential on THP1 macrophages with internalized Mycobacterium. Our study is one of its first kind, where we assessed the synergistic antimycobacterial effect of the isolated compounds with the first-line drug Isoniazid (INH). Their potential role in promoting phagolysosome fusion and apoptosis of M. bovis infected THP1 macrophages is further evaluated.


Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2952
Author(s):  
Shenshen Zhang ◽  
Ruizhe Hu ◽  
Yaping Geng ◽  
Ke Chen ◽  
Ling Wang ◽  
...  

Natural bioactive compounds abundantly presented in foods and medicinal plants have recently received a remarkable attention because of their various biological activities and minimal toxicity. In recent years, many natural compounds appear to offer significant effects in the regulation of ferroptosis. Ferroptosis is the forefront of international scientific research which has been exponential growth since the term was coined. This type of regulated cell death is driven by iron-dependent phospholipid peroxidation. Recent studies have shown that numerous organ injuries and pathophysiological processes of many diseases are driven by ferroptosis, such as cancer, arteriosclerosis, neurodegenerative disease, diabetes, ischemia-reperfusion injury and acute renal failure. It is reported that the initiation and inhibition of ferroptosis plays a pivotal role in lipid peroxidation, organ damage, neurodegeneration and cancer growth and progression. Recently, many natural phytochemicals extracted from edible plants have been demonstrated to be novel ferroptosis regulators and have the potential to treat ferroptosis-related diseases. This review provides an updated overview on the role of natural bioactive compounds and the potential signaling pathways in the regulation of ferroptosis.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Nishant Kumar ◽  
Pratibha ◽  
Neeraj ◽  
Rokayya Sami ◽  
Ebtihal Khojah ◽  
...  

Abstract Bioactive compound characterization is an important steps for utilization of pomegranate peel waste as food and nutraceutical ingredients. In the present investigation the effects of different drying (freeze, tray-oven and sun) and solvents such as methanol, ethanol, water, acetone and hexane were investigated on the extraction and recovery of major bioactive compounds (ellagic acid, gallic acid, quercetin and punicalagin) of pomegranate peel for two pomegranate varieties (i.e. Bhagwa and Ganesh) using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that the peel powder obtained by freeze drying (-45°C) method which extracted by methanol was higher amount in bioactive compounds compared to the other drying methods and solvents. Freeze dried peel powder of Bhagwa pomegranate showed higher amount of gallic acid (32.2 mg/g), ellagic acid (13.6 mg/g), punicalagin (15.2 mg/g) and quercetin (2.5 mg/g) with methanol solvent as compared to the other extract of Bhagwa and Ganesh varieties. Basis on the results of current study it can be concluded that the freeze drying method for drying pomegranate peel powder and methanol as a solvent are effectives to recover higher extraction of bioactive compounds which can be utilize to develop human and animal health.


Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 2447
Author(s):  
María Esther Martínez-Navarro ◽  
Cristina Cebrián-Tarancón ◽  
Gonzalo L. Alonso ◽  
María Rosario Salinas

Olive leaves are still considered waste in the oil industry; however, the leaves have a content of oleuropein and other bioactive compounds that gives them great potential to be transformed into by-products. The most appropriate moment along an agronomic cycle (November 2019 to October 2020) has been evaluated to take advantage of this potential of the olive leaves varieties of Picual, Cornicabra and Manzanilla. In addition, factors that affect the content of phenolic compounds such as absolute maximum and minimum temperatures, relative humidity, sunshine hours, rainfall, differential of temperatures and mineral nutrition have been studied. The results show that the pruning season was the best time to take advantage of the olive leaf due to its high oleuropein content, especially in Picual and Manzanilla. The variety was the factor that most affected all the phenolic compounds studied, while the absolute minimum temperature factor notably affected verbascoside. Particular mineral nutrients, such as Mg and Fe, turned out to be most useful for differentiating locations. The content of verbascoside and hydroxytyrosol was also affected by agronomic conditions (location/conventional or ecological).


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