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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
A. G. Toledo ◽  
J. G. de L. de Souza ◽  
C. B. Santana ◽  
A. P. Mallmann ◽  
C. V. dos Santos ◽  
...  

Abstract The species Eugenia involucrata DC. is a plant native to Brazil and is traditionally used for intestinal problems, however, little research has documented about its biological potential and phytochemical profile. Thus, the objective of this study was to carry out preliminary phytochemical prospecting, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of E. involucrata extracts. Using the E. involucrata leaves, aqueous and organic extracts were obtained using the following solvents (ethanol, methanol, hexane, acetone, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate). The phytochemical prospecting detected the presence of saponins, steroids, flavonoids and tannins in the extracts. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts presented antimicrobial activity for most of the bacterial strains tested, as well as for yeast Candida albicans, with concentrations between 3.12 and 50 mg/mL. The ethanolic and metanolic extract presented high free radical sequestration potential (>90%). The methanol extract showed an IC50 value statistically equal to that found for the commercial antioxidant BHT (p <0.05). The crude extracts obtained with ethanol and methanol were the most promising. These results suggest that methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts are a promising source of natural bioactive.


2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
S. S. Moni ◽  
M. F. Alam ◽  
M. H. Sultan ◽  
H. A. Makeen ◽  
H. A. Alhazmi ◽  
...  

Abstract The objective of the present study was to analyse the bioactive compounds of the leaves of Conocarpus lancifolius (C. lancifolius). The GC-MS analysis of the hot methanolic extract of the leaves (HMEL) of C. lancifolius exhibited the bioactive compounds such as 1-(3-Methoxy-2-nitrobenzyl) iso quinoline, morphin-4-ol-6,7-dione, 1-bromo-N-methyl-, phytol, hexadecanoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester, 2,2':4',2”-terthiophene, ethyl iso-allocholate, caryophyllene oxide, campesterol, epiglobulol, cholestan-3-ol, 2-methylene-, (3á,5à)-, dasycarpidan-1-methanol, acetate (ester) and oleic acid, eicosyl ester. The FT-IR analysis of HMEL of C. lancifolius showed a unique peak at 3184, 2413, 1657 cm-1 representing coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid. The HMEL of C. lancifolius was actively inhibiting the proliferation of breast cancer cells MCF-7 ATCC at the concentration of 72.66 ± 8.21 µg/ml as IC50 value. The HMEL of C. lancifolius also revealed a good spectrum of activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial cultures screened in this work. The activity observed has shown more or less similar effects against screened bacteria. However, the magnitude of potentiality was significantly lesser compared to standard ciprofloxacin disc at p< 0.001 level (99% confidence intervals). Furthermore, the study demonstrating the bioactive compounds can be isolated from the leaves of C. lancifolius.


2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 28-33
Author(s):  
M. Ranggawati ◽  
I. I. Arief ◽  
Z. Wulandari

Whey produced from cheese processing can be used as non-food products such as sunscreen by fermenting using Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Adding active ingredients such as red fruit oil which contains carotenoids can increase the effectiveness of sunscreen. This study aims to determine the formulation of fermented whey and red fruit oil usage in sunscreen. The study began with the production of fermented whey and sunscreen formulations with ratios of 0, 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 (fermented whey: red fruit oil). Furthermore, observe the organoleptic, antioxidant, SPF, pH, and homogeneity value. Adding fermented whey and red fruit oil showed no significant effect (P>0.05) onthe organoleptic test of aroma, but significantly (P<0.05) on color and texture. The antioxidant activity value test showed significantly different results (P<0.05) with IC50 values classified as moderate to high.Determination of the SPF value of sunscreen showed significantly different results  (P<0.05), but this value was classified as low protection. Although there was no significant effect on pH testing (P>0.05), the pH of sunscreen cream indicated that it was suitable for topical application. All samples showed homogeneous results and there were no coarse particles or separation between the oil and water phases. The best sunscreen formulation is 1:1 cream with the highest SPF value of 6.86 and strong antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 56.15 g/mL. Fermented whey and red fruit oil usage as active ingredients are more effective in increasing the protection of the cream against UV rays and free radicals.


Processes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 166
Author(s):  
Geum-Seok Jeong ◽  
Eun-Young Lee ◽  
Myung-Gyun Kang ◽  
Sang-Jip Nam ◽  
Daeui Park ◽  
...  

In this study, the inhibitory activities against human monoamine oxidases (hMAOs) were evaluated using a library of 195 endogenous lichen fungi from Ukraine. Among them, the extract ELF68 of the endogenous fungus Rosellinia corticium from the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf. exhibited the strongest inhibitory activity against hMAO-A. Using the activity-guided method, (S)-5-methylmellein (5MM) was isolated from the extract and had an IC50 value of 5.31 µM for hMAO-A with a lower potency for hMAO-B (IC50 = 9.15 µM). Compound 5MM also moderately inhibited acetylcholinesterase (IC50 = 27.07 µM) but very weakly inhibited butyrylcholinesterase and β-secretase. Compound 5MM had a Ki value of 2.45 μM and was a reversible competitive inhibitor of hMAO-A. A molecular docking study predicted that (S)-5MM showed higher binding affinity for hMAO-A (−6.8 kcal/mol) than hMAO-B (−6.4 kcal/mol). Its isomer, (R)-5MM, exhibited lower binding affinities for hMAO-A (−6.6 kcal/mol) and hMAO-B (−5.2 kcal/mol), compared to (S)-5MM. The S-form interacted with hMAO-A through hydrogen bonding with the Phe208 residue (distance: 1.972 Å), while the R-form interacted with the Asn181 residue (2.375 Å). The results of an in silico pharmacokinetic analysis indicated that 5MM did not violate Lipinski’s five rules and showed high gastrointestinal absorption and blood–brain barrier permeability. These results suggest that 5MM can be considered a candidate in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression and cardiovascular disease.


Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 510
Author(s):  
Angela F Danil de Namor ◽  
Nawal Al Hakawati ◽  
Sami Y Farhat

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a disease which is causing a high degree of mortality around the world. The present study reports the antiproliferative impact of the thioacetamide calix[4]arene, CAII receptor on a highly differentiated Caco-2 cell line. This statement is corroborated by the MTT assay results which revealed a reduction in the cell viability with an IC50 value of 19.02 ± 0.04 µM. Microscopic results indicated that at the starting amount of 10 µM of CAII, a decrease in cells confluency can already be observed in addition to changes in cells morphology. Cell metabolic pathway changes were also investigated. 1H NMR findings showed downregulation in lactate, pyruvate, phosphocholine, lipids, and hydroxybutyrate with the upregulation of succinate, indicating a decline in the cells proliferation. Some biochemical alterations in the cells as a result of the CAII treatment were found by Raman spectroscopy.


Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 485
Author(s):  
Ahmet Özdemir ◽  
Halilibrahim Ciftci ◽  
Belgin Sever ◽  
Hiroshi Tateishi ◽  
Masami Otsuka ◽  
...  

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death throughout the world. Due to the shortcomings of traditional chemotherapy, targeted therapies have come into prominence for the management of NSCLC. In particular, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy has emerged as a first-line therapy for NSCLC patients with EGFR-activating mutations. In this context, new indenopyrazoles, which were prepared by an efficient microwave-assisted method, were subjected to in silico and in vitro assays to evaluate their potency as EGFR TK-targeted anti-NSCLC agents. Compound 4 was the most promising antitumor agent towards A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells, with an IC50 value of 6.13 µM compared to erlotinib (IC50 = 19.67 µM). Based on its low cytotoxicity to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), it can be concluded that compound 4 exerts selective antitumor action. This compound also inhibited EGFR TK with an IC50 value of 17.58 µM compared to erlotinib (IC50 = 0.04 µM) and induced apoptosis (56.30%). Taking into account in silico and in vitro data, compound 4 stands out as a potential EGFR TKI for the treatment of NSCLC.


Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 410
Author(s):  
Leilson de Oliveira Ribeiro ◽  
Beatriz Pereira de Freitas ◽  
Carolline Margot Albanez Lorentino ◽  
Heloisa Freire Frota ◽  
André Luis Souza dos Santos ◽  
...  

Herein, the extraction of bioactive compounds from umbu fruit peel was optimized using thermal-assisted solid–liquid extraction. In parallel, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and inhibitory effects against α-amylase of optimized extract were also evaluated. The combination of operational conditions including the temperature (32–74 °C), ethanol concentration (13–97%), and solid/liquid ratio (1:10–1:60; w/v) was employed using a rotational central composite design for optimization. The extracts were evaluated for total phenolic compounds (TPC), total flavonoid compounds (TFC) and antioxidant capacity by ABTS•+, DPPH• and FRAP assays. The bioactive profile of the optimized extract was obtained by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry in electrospray ionization in both negative and positive modes. The statistically evaluated results showed that the optimal operational conditions for the recovery of bioactive compounds from umbu fruit peel included 74 °C, 37% ethanol, and a solid–liquid ratio of 1:38. Under these conditions, the obtained values were 1985 mg GAE/100 g, 1364 mg RE/100 g, 122 µmol TE/g, 174 µmol/TE g and 468 µmol Fe2+/g for TPC, TFC, ABTS•+, DPPH•, and FRAP assays, respectively. In addition, the optimized extract was effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (MBC ranged from 0.060 to 0.24 mg GAE/mL), as well as it was effective to inhibit α-amylase (IC50 value of 0.076 mg GAE/mL). The optimized extract showed to be mainly constituted by phenolic acids and flavonoids.


Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 393
Author(s):  
Ajay C. Lagashetti ◽  
Sanjay K. Singh ◽  
Laurent Dufossé ◽  
Pratibha Srivastava ◽  
Paras N. Singh

Filamentous fungi synthesize natural products as an ecological function. In this study, an interesting indigenous fungus producing orange pigment exogenously was investigated in detail as it possesses additional attributes along with colouring properties. An interesting fungus was isolated from a dicot plant, Maytenus rothiana. After a detailed study, the fungal isolate turned out to be a species of Gonatophragmium belonging to the family Acrospermaceae. Based on the morphological, cultural, and sequence-based phylogenetic analysis, the identity of this fungus was confirmed as Gonatophragmium triuniae. Although this fungus grows moderately, it produces good amounts of pigment on an agar medium. The fermented crude extract isolated from G. triuniae has shown antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 0.99 mg/mL and antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (with MIC of 3.91 μg/mL against Bacillus subtilis, and 15.6 μg/mL and 31.25 μg/mL for Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus, respectively). Dyeing of cotton fabric mordanted with FeSO4 using crude pigment was found to be satisfactory based on visual observation, suggesting its possible use in the textile industry. The orange pigment was purified from the crude extract by preparative HP-TLC. In addition, UV-Vis, FTIR, HRMS and NMR (1H NMR, 13C NMR), COSY, and DEPT analyses revealed the orange pigment to be “1,2-dimethoxy-3H-phenoxazin-3-one” (C14H11NO4, m/z 257). To our understanding, the present study is the first comprehensive report on Gonatophragmium triuniae as a potential pigment producer, reporting “1,2-dimethoxy-3H-phenoxazin-3-one” as the main pigment from the crude hexane extract. Moreover, this is the first study reporting antioxidant, antibacterial, and dyeing potential of crude extract of G. triuniae, suggesting possible potential applications of pigments and other bioactive secondary metabolites of the G. triuniae in textile and pharmaceutical industry.


Author(s):  
ANUP M. AKARTE ◽  
PRAKASH H. PATIL

Objective: The aim of proposed work is to develop and screen cyclodextrin based Nanosponge loaded with poorly soluble anticancer drug and to optimize most suitable Nanosystem with increased solubility and dissolution rate. Methods: Cyclodextrinnanosponge (CDNS) was prepared using pyromelliticdianhydride as a crosslinker for beta cyclodextrin monomer. Cyclodextrinnanosponge and curcumin were taken in 1:1 w/w proportion. The resultant curcumin loaded nanosponges were dried at 50±0.5 °C for 24 h. Results: The absorbance maxima for Curcumin was seen at 424.0 nm and for cyclodextrin was seen at 290.0 nm, The average melting point of pure drug is 181 °C which is complies with Stander melting point of drug and the aspect ratio of the nanosponge was found 1.037. Zeta potential noticed for CUR-CD-NS were more negative contrasted with separate plain CUR (−20.1±1.57) demonstrating solidness of the nanodispersion. Curcumin release from CUR-CDNS was upgraded to very nearly 10 folds toward the finish of 8 hour. Treatment with a combination of CUR-CDNS at 1:1 and 1:3 ratios resulted in an IC50 value was found 14.98 μg/ml. Conclusion: In vitro cytotoxicity study and combination index analysis showed the synergistic effect of CUR-CDNS against MCF-7 cells. The present study reveals that the combination of curcumin results in higher cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells.


Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 374
Author(s):  
Lingyun Zhong ◽  
Yuji Lin ◽  
Can Wang ◽  
Bei Niu ◽  
Ying Xu ◽  
...  

The purpose of this study was to investigate the major flavonoids content and bioactivities of Tartary buckwheat sprouts. The crude methanol extract (ME) of Tartary buckwheat sprouts was abundant in flavonoids, and six major flavonoids, including isoorientin, vitexin, isovitexin, rutin, quercetin, and kaemferol were successfully determined from the sprouts by the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Generally, the flavonoid content of buckwheat sprouts was in the order of rutin > quercetin > isovitexin > vitexin> isoorientin > kaemferol. The highest rutin content of the ME and sprout cultures was 89.81 mg/g and 31.50 mg/g, respectively. Antibacterial activity results indicated the ME displayed notable inhibitory activity against the five tested bacteria, and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranged from 0.8 mg/mL to 3.2 mg/mL. Among the six flavonoids, quercetin was the most active compound, which exhibited strong activity against all tested bacteria except for E. coli and S. epidermidis, with its MIC values ranging from 0.2 mg/mL to 0.4 mg/mL. For the antifungal activity assay, the ME of Tartary buckwheat sprouts and four flavonoids could significantly inhibit the spore germination of two pathogenic fungi, and their inhibitory efficiency was concentration dependent. Quercetin was the most active one, which significantly inhibited the spore germination of F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum and F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum, and its median effective inhibitory concentration (IC50) value was 42.36 and 32.85 µg/mL, respectively. The antioxidant activity results showed that quercetin, kaemferol, and rutin displayed excellent antioxidant activity in the DPPH radical scavenging test, and their IC50 value was calculated as 5.60, 16.23, and 27.95 µg/mL, respectively. This is the first report on the antimicrobial activity of the crude extract of Tartary buckwheat sprouts. These results indicated that the methanol extract of Tartary buckwheat sprouts could be used as a potential antimicrobial or antioxidant agent in the future.


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