aqueous environment
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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
R. Yasmeen ◽  
B. Zahid ◽  
S. Alyas ◽  
R. Akhtar ◽  
N. Zahra ◽  

Abstract Lactobacilli are probiotics with Aflatoxin (AF) detoxification ability, found in fermented products, GIT of animals and environment. Purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of broiler isolates of Lactobacillus against Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). For this purpose, 5 isolates of Lactobacillus from broiler gut were incubated with 100 ppb AFB1 in aqueous environment and effect of different parameters (cell fractions, time, temperature, pH) on detoxification was determined by HPLC. The ameliorative effect of Lactobacillus salivarius (LS) against AFB1 was studied in broiler. The results revealed that LS (CR. 4) showed the best results (in vitro) as compared to other isolates (L. salivarius (CR. 3, CR, 4), L. agilis (CE. 2.1, CE. 3.1) and L. crispatus (CE. 28). Cell debris of CR. 4 showed significantly higher detoxification (P<0.05). Maximum amount of AFB1 was detoxified at 30°C (97%), pH 4.0 (99%) and 6 h (99.97%). In vivo study showed that AFB1 decreased weight gain (1,269 ± 0.04 gm/ bird), feed consumed (2,161 ± 0.08 gm/ bird), serum total protein (2.42 ± 0.34 gm/ dl), serum albumin (0.5 ± 0.2 2 gm/dl) and antibody titer (4.2 ± 0.83). Liver function enzymes were found (alanine transaminase (ALT): 32 ± 10.7 U/L) and aspartate transaminase (AST): 314.8 ± 27 U/L) elevated in AFB1 fed broilers. Treatment with 1% LS not only decreased the toxic effects of AFB1 (group D) but also improved the overall health of broilers due to its probiotic effects (p<0.05) as compared to control negative (group A). The detoxification ability of LS was better than commercial binder (CB) (0.2% Protmyc). It was concluded that detoxification of AFB1 by Lactobacillus was strain, temperature, pH and time dependent. LS has detoxification ability against AFB1 in vivo.

2022 ◽  
Vol 153 ◽  
pp. 106696
Hoang Nguyen ◽  
Hellen Santos ◽  
Harisankar Sreenivasan ◽  
Wolfgang Kunther ◽  
Valter Carvelli ◽  

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
S. Muhammad ◽  
M. F. Maqbool ◽  
A. G. Al-Sehemi ◽  
A. Iqbal ◽  
M. Khan ◽  

Abstract In the current report, we studied the possible inhibitors of COVID-19 from bioactive constituents of Centaurea jacea using a threefold approach consisting of quantum chemical, molecular docking and molecular dynamic techniques. Centaurea jacea is a perennial herb often used in folk medicines of dermatological complaints and fever. Moreover, anticancer, antioxidant, antibacterial and antiviral properties of its bioactive compounds are also reported. The Mpro (Main proteases) was docked with different compounds of Centaurea jacea through molecular docking. All the studied compounds including apigenin, axillarin, Centaureidin, Cirsiliol, Eupatorin and Isokaempferide, show suitable binding affinities to the binding site of SARS-CoV-2 main protease with their binding energies -6.7 kcal/mol, -7.4 kcal/mol, -7.0 kcal/mol, -5.8 kcal/mol, -6.2 kcal/mol and -6.8 kcal/mol, respectively. Among all studied compounds, axillarin was found to have maximum inhibitor efficiency followed by Centaureidin, Isokaempferide, Apigenin, Eupatorin and Cirsiliol. Our results suggested that axillarin binds with the most crucial catalytic residues CYS145 and HIS41 of the Mpro, moreover axillarin shows 5 hydrogen bond interactions and 5 hydrophobic interactions with various residues of Mpro. Furthermore, the molecular dynamic calculations over 60 ns (6×106 femtosecond) time scale also shown significant insights into the binding effects of axillarin with Mpro of SARS-CoV-2 by imitating protein like aqueous environment. From molecular dynamic calculations, the RMSD and RMSF computations indicate the stability and dynamics of the best docked complex in aqueous environment. The ADME properties and toxicity prediction analysis of axillarin also recommended it as safe drug candidate. Further, in vivo and in vitro investigations are essential to ensure the anti SARS-CoV-2 activity of all bioactive compounds particularly axillarin to encourage preventive use of Centaurea jacea against COVID-19 infections.

Sensor Review ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Amin Eidi ◽  
Mousa Shamsi ◽  
Habib Badri Ghavifekr

Purpose In this work, the sensing and actuating elements are designed with interdigitated capacitors away from the sensitive element on which the droplet is placed. This pattern helps to prevent interference of electrical elements with the droplet. Choosing shear resonance mode at this proposed structure minimizes the damping effect of droplet touch by the resonator structure. The glass-based standard fabrication method of the proposed biosensor is presented exactly. Design/methodology/approach Mechanical resonator sensors are extremely limited because of the high damping factor and the high electrical conductivity in the aqueous environment. In this work, a molecule detector biosensor is proposed for droplet analysis, which is possible to fabricate using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. By electromechanical coupling of resonators as a mechanical resonator structure, a standing mechanical wave is formed at this structure by electrostatic actuating elements. Findings In this paper, a mechanical resonator structure as a biosensor is proposed for micro-droplet analysis that can be fabricated by MEMS technology. It is designed at a lower cost fabrication method using electrostatic technology and interdigitated capacitors. The response of the biosensor displacement frequency at the resonance frequency of the desired mode is reasonable for measuring the capacitive changes of its output. The mass sensitivity of the proposed biosensor is in the range of 1 ng, and it has a large sensitive area for capturing target molecules. Originality/value To evaluate the quality of the proposed design, the stimulated analysis is conducted by COMSOL and results are presented.

Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 263
Szabolcs Bognár ◽  
Predrag Putnik ◽  
Daniela Šojić Merkulov

Polluting the natural water resources is a serious global issue, which is confirmed by the fact that today at least 2 billion people consume water from contaminated sources. The conventional wastewater treatment methods cannot effectively remove the persistent pollutants (e.g., drugs, organic dyes, pesticides) from the aqueous environment. Heterogeneous photocatalysis is a promising and sustainable alternative for water remediation. It is based on the interaction between light irradiation and the semiconductors (e.g., TiO2, ZnO) as photocatalysts, but these compounds, unfortunately, have some disadvantages. Hence, great attention has been paid to the nanotechnology as a possible way of improvement. Nanomaterials have extraordinary properties; however, their conventional synthesis is often difficult and requires a significant amount of dangerous chemicals. This concise topical review gives recent updates and trends in development of sustainable and green pathways in the synthesis of nanomaterials, as well as in their application for water remediation. In our review we put emphasis on the eco-friendly, mostly plant extract-based materials. The importance of this topic, including this study as well, is proved by the growing number of publications since 2018. Due to the current serious environmental issues (e.g., global warming, shortage of pure and quality water), it is necessary for the traditional TiO2 and ZnO semiconductors to be replaced with the harmless, non-toxic, and more powerful nanocomposites as photocatalysts. Not only because of their higher efficiency as compared to the bulk semiconductors, but also because of the presence of biomolecules that can add up to the pollutant removal efficiency, which has been already confirmed in many researches. However, despite the fact that the application of heterogeneous photocatalysis together with green nanotechnology is absolutely the future in water purification, there are some challenges which have to be overcome. The exact effects of the biomolecules obtained from plants in the synthesis of nanoparticles, as well as in the photocatalytic processes, are not exactly known and require further investigation. Furthermore, heterogeneous photocatalysis is a well-known and commonly examined process; however, its practical use outside the laboratory is expensive and difficult. Thus, it has to be simplified and improved in order to be available for everyone. The aim of our review is to suggest and prove that using these bio-inspired compounds it is possible to reduce human footprint in the nature.

Geofluids ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-20
Yuke Liu ◽  
Wenyuan He ◽  
Jinyou Zhang ◽  
Zhenwu Liu ◽  
Fazi Chen ◽  

The genesis of dolostone has long been puzzling for more than two centuries. Although much work has been done on investigating the process of dolomitization, little emphasis has been put on examining the diagenetic water redox condition with the wealthy geochemical information preserved in primary dolomite, which is believed to archive the aqueous environment as well as biotic and/or abiotic effects during formation. In situ interpretation with high resolution is a prerequisite in refined research of dolomite. Here, we reported the multielement imaging results of a lacustrine dolomite nodule with the host black shale from the Songliao Basin, northeast of China. Micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) with a spatial resolution down to 10 μm was used for in situ scanning. Two key parameter settings of the μ-XRF, including single-point exposure time and spatial resolution, were optimized to achieve a better result in a reasonable scanning time scale. The final imaging data graphically revealed dynamic variation of elemental distributions, including elements enriched in dolomite (e.g., Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn), clastic quartz (Si), and clay minerals (e.g., Al and K) and redox-sensitive trace elements (e.g., Cr, Mo, V, and U). The well-preserved laminated structures inside the nodule and the features with a magnesium-rich core wrapped with an iron-concentric outer layer and a manganese-concentric shell together indicated its primary form as dolomite and a gradual transformation into ankerite as well as manganese-ankerite. The elemental variation indicates a varied bottom water redox condition, which involved from sulfidic to ferruginous and manganous zones. Here, we propose that the intermittent supplies of sulfate and Fe-/Mn-oxidized minerals interrupting the black shale deposition while favoring dolomitization might be brought by the oxidized and salted seawater. And this lacustrine dolomite is expected to be a potential fingerprint mineral in tracking the seawater intrusions to the Songliao Basin which happened 91 million years ago.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 598
Justyna Piechocka ◽  
Natalia Litwicka ◽  
Rafał Głowacki

It is well established that homocysteine (Hcy) and its thiolactone (HTL) are reactive towards aldehydes in an aqueous environment, forming substituted thiazinane carboxylic acids. This report provides evidence that Hcy/HTL and formaldehyde (FA) adduct, namely 1,3-thiazinane-4-carboxylic acid (TCA) is formed in vivo in humans. In order to provide definitive proof, a gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) based method was elaborated to identify and quantify TCA in human urine. The GC–MS assay involves chemical derivatization with isobutyl chloroformate (IBCF) in the presence of pyridine as a catalyst, followed by an ethyl acetate extraction of the obtained isobutyl derivative of TCA (TCA-IBCF). The validity of the method has been demonstrated based upon United States Food and Drug Administration recommendations. The assay linearity was observed within a 1–50 µmol L−1 range for TCA in urine, while the lowest concentration on the calibration curve was recognized as the limit of quantification (LOQ). Importantly, the method was successfully applied to urine samples delivered by apparently healthy volunteers (n = 15). The GC–MS assay may provide a new analytical tool for routine clinical analysis of the role of TCA in living systems in the near future.

2022 ◽  
Vol 60 (1) ◽  
pp. 35-45
Hye Rin Bang ◽  
Jin-seong Park ◽  
Hwan Goo Seong ◽  
Sung Jin Kim

This study examined the effects of minor alloying elements (C, Ni, Cr, and Mo) on the long-term corrosion behaviors of ultrahigh-strength automotive steel sheets with a tensile strength of more than 1800 MPa. A range of experimental and analytical results showed that the addition of Ni, Cr, and Mo decreased the corrosion current density and weight loss in electrochemical and immersion tests, respectively, in a neutral aqueous condition. This suggests that the minor addition of elements to steel can result in improved corrosion resistance even for long-term immersion periods. This is closely associated with the formation of thin and stable corrosion scale on the surface, which was enriched with the alloying elements (Ni, Cr, and Mo). On the other hand, their beneficial effects did not persist during the prolonged immersion periods in steel with a higher C content, suggesting that the beneficial effects of the minor addition of Ni, Cr, and Mo were overridden by the detrimental effects of a higher C content as the immersion time was increased. Based on these results, lower C and the optimal use of Ni, Cr, and Mo are suggested as a desirable alloy design strategy for developing ultrahigh-strength steel sheets that can be exposed frequently to a neutral aqueous environment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Anna Czapka ◽  
Christian Grune ◽  
Patrick Schädel ◽  
Vivien Bachmann ◽  
Karl Scheuer ◽  

Abstract Background Insufficient solubility and stability of bioactive small molecules as well as poor biocompatibility may cause low bioavailability and are common obstacles in drug development. One example of such problematic molecules is 6-bromoindirubin-3'-glycerol-oxime ether (6BIGOE), a hydrophobic indirubin derivative. 6BIGOE potently modulates the release of inflammatory cytokines and lipid mediators from isolated human monocytes through inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 in a favorable fashion. However, 6BIGOE suffers from poor solubility and short half-lives in biological aqueous environment and exerts cytotoxic effects in various mammalian cells. In order to overcome the poor water solubility, instability and cytotoxicity of 6BIGOE, we applied encapsulation into poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-based nanoparticles by employing formulation methods using the sustainable solvents Cyrene™ or 400 g/mol poly(ethylene glycol) as suitable technology for efficient drug delivery of 6BIGOE. Results For all preparation techniques the physicochemical characterization of 6BIGOE-loaded nanoparticles revealed comparable crystallinity, sizes of about 230 nm with low polydispersity, negative zeta potentials around − 15 to − 25 mV, and biphasic release profiles over up to 24 h. Nanoparticles with improved cellular uptake and the ability to mask cytotoxic effects of 6BIGOE were obtained as shown in human monocytes over 48 h as well as in a shell-less hen’s egg model. Intriguingly, encapsulation into these nanoparticles fully retains the anti-inflammatory properties of 6BIGOE, that is, favorable modulation of the release of inflammation-relevant cytokines and lipid mediators from human monocytes. Conclusions Our formulation method of PLGA-based nanoparticles by applying sustainable, non-toxic solvents is a feasible nanotechnology that circumvents the poor bioavailability and biocompatibility of the cargo 6BIGOE. This technology yields favorable drug delivery systems for efficient interference with inflammatory processes, with improved pharmacotherapeutic potential. Graphical Abstract

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