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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 964-970
Tao Liu ◽  
Xiang Wen ◽  
Qi-Jun Zhao ◽  
Ying Bai ◽  
Qing-Gang Tian

The paclitaxel is a common-used chemotherapy drug and its combination with nano albumin reduces drug side effect. However, whether nab-paclitaxel affects drug resistance of breast cancer remains unclear. This study intends to discuss the mechanism of drug resistance induced by nab-paclitaxel. The drug resistance of MCF-7/nab-paclitaxel in MCF-7 cell and cell proliferation was detected by MTT along with analysis of ABCB1 expression, cell cycle, and apoptosis. There was stronger drug resistance of nab-paclitaxel in the MCF-7/nab-paclitaxel cell group through be adopted with different concentration of nab-paclitaxel at the 0th hour, 24th hour and 48th hour. There was remarkable abnormal expression of the ABCB1 in the MCF-7/nab-paclitaxel cell group. The si-ABCB1 could release the quantity of the MCF-7/nab-paclitaxel cell blocked at S period. And the si-ABCB1 could reduce the expression of cyclin D1 and CDK2 in the MCF-7/nab-paclitaxel cell notably. But the expression level of p21 was increased when there was high concentration of si-ABCB1. The si-ABCB1 could increase the quantity of the MCF-7/nab-paclitaxel cell at the later period of cell apoptosis notably. The rat’s tumor growth was delayed obviously at the MCF-7/nabpaclitaxel cell group treated by si-ABCB1. But the inhibiting effect of the MCF-7/nab-paclitaxel cell on tumor growth was less. There was stronger drug resistance of cell for the nano albumin combined with paclitaxel. The function of cell proliferation in breast cancer was restrained by the nano albumin combined with paclitaxel mainly through inducing the expression of ABCB1, adjusting the growth of cell cycle and the expression of P21/BCL-2 protein.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 989-995
Ke Chunlin ◽  
Dong Feng ◽  
Wang Peirong

Objective: The purpose of our study was to evaluate Enhancement Mechanism of Dihydromyricetin (DMY) on the Inhibitory Role of Cisplatin Towards Breast Cancer Cell Activity. Materials and Methods: The MCF-7 were divided into NC, DMY, Cis and DMY+Cis groups. Using relative methods (MTT, TUNEL, Transwell, flow cytometry and wound healing) to evaluate MCF-7 cell biological activities including cell viability, apoptosis, invasion cell number and wound healing rate. The relative proteins expressions including FOXO-1, Noxa, Bim, Cyto C, Caspase-3, Caspase-9 and Apaf-1 were evaluated by WB assay. Results: MCF-7 cell viability, invasion cell number and wound healing rates were significantly depressed and apoptosis rate were significantly increased in DMY, Cis and DMY+Cis groups (P < 0.01, respectively). Compared with Cis group, cell viability, invasion cell number and wound healing rates were significantly depressed and apoptosis rate were significantly increased in DMY+Cis group (P < 0.05, respectively). Conclusion: Dihydromyricetin can effectively enhance the inhibitory effect of cisplatin on breast cancer cells.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 301
Khalid Zoghebi ◽  
Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi ◽  
Rakesh Kumar Tiwari ◽  
Keykavous Parang

Doxorubicin (Dox) is an anthracycline chemotherapeutic agent used to treat breast, leukemia, and lymphoma malignancies. However, cardiotoxicity and inherent acquired resistance are major drawbacks, limiting its clinical application. We have previously shown that cyclic peptide [WR]9 containing alternate tryptophan (W) and arginine (R) residues acts as an efficient molecular transporter. An amphiphilic cyclic peptide containing a lysine (K) residue and alternative W and R was conjugated through a free side chain amino group with Dox via a glutarate linker to afford [(WR)8WKβA]-Dox conjugate. Antiproliferative assays were performed in different cancer cell lines using the conjugate and the corresponding physical mixture of the peptide and Dox to evaluate the effectiveness of synthesized conjugate compared to the parent drug alone. [(WR)8WKβA]-Dox conjugate showed higher antiproliferative activity at 10 µM and 5 µM than Dox alone at 5 μM. The conjugate inhibited the cell viability of ovarian adenocarcinoma (SK-OV-3) by 59% and the triple-negative breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 by 71% and 77%, respectively, at a concentration of 5 μM after 72 h of incubation. In contrast, Dox inhibited the proliferation of SK-OV-3, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-7 by 35%, 63%, and 57%, respectively. Furthermore, [(WR)8WKβA]-Dox conjugate (5 µM) inhibited the cell viability of Dox-resistant cells (MES-SA/MX2) by 92%, while the viability of cells incubated with free Dox was only 15% at 5 μM. Confocal microscopy images confirmed the ability of both Dox conjugate and the physical mixture of the peptide with the drug to deliver Dox through an endocytosis-independent pathway, as the uptake was not inhibited in the presence of endocytosis inhibitors. The stability of Dox conjugate was observed at different time intervals using analytical HPLC when the conjugate was incubated with 25% human serum. Half-life (t1/2) for [(WR)8WKβA]-Dox conjugate was (∼6 h), and more than 80% of the conjugate was degraded at 12 h. The release of free Dox was assessed intracellularly using the CCRF-CEM cell line. The experiment demonstrated that approximately 100% of free Dox was released from the conjugate intracellularly within 72 h. These data confirm the ability of the cyclic cell-penetrating peptide containing tryptophan and arginine residues as an efficient tool for delivery of Dox and for overcoming resistance to it.

2022 ◽  
Vol 46 (1) ◽  
Eman Zakaria Gomaa

Abstract Background Halophiles are an excellent source of enzymes that are not only salt stable, but also can withstand and carry out reaction efficiently under extreme conditions. l-glutaminase has attracted much attention with respect to proposed applications in several fields such as pharmaceuticals and food industries. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anticancer activity of l-glutaminase produced by halophilic bacteria. Various halophilic bacterial strains were screened for extracellular l-glutaminase production. An attempt was made to study the optimization, purification, and characterization of l-glutaminase from Bacillus sp. DV2-37. The antitumor activity of the produced enzyme was also investigated. Results The potentiality of 15 halophilic bacterial strains isolated from the marine environment that produced extracellular l-glutaminase was investigated. Bacillus sp. DV2-37 was selected as the most potent strain and optimized for enzyme production. The optimization of fermentation process revealed that the highest enzyme activity (47.12 U/ml) was observed in a medium supplemented with 1% (w/v) glucose as a carbon source, 1% (w/v) peptone as a nitrogen source, 5% (w/v) NaCl, the initial pH was 7.0, at 37 °C, using 20% (v/v) inoculum size after 96 h of incubation. The produced crude enzyme was partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and dialysis. Of the various parameters tested, pH 7, 40 °C, and 5% NaCl were found to be the best for l-glutaminase activity. The enzyme also exhibited high salt and temperature stability. The antitumor effect against human breast (MCF-7), hepatocellular (HepG-2), and colon (HCT-116) carcinoma cell lines revealed that l-glutaminase produced by Bacillus sp. DV2-37 showed potent cytotoxic activity of all the tested cell lines in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 3.5, 3.4, and 3.8 µg/ml, respectively. Conclusions The present study proved that l-glutaminase produced by marine bacteria holds proper features and it has a high potential to be useful for many therapeutic applications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Pei Zhang ◽  
Nan Wu ◽  
Zhi-Jun Song ◽  
Zheng-Fu Tai

Tamoxifen is an effective drug for treating patients with advanced estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer (BC), but not for all ER + BC patients. Drug tolerance is the biggest obstacle. In this study, we designed an experiment to investigate whether paeoniflorin affects the ER + BC cell’s sensitivity to tamoxifen in the T47D and MCF-7 cell lines. Herein, we found that paeoniflorin inhibited cell proliferation without inducing apoptosis. However, it enhanced tamoxifen-induced apoptosis in both cell lines. Immunoblotting revealed that paeoniflorin significantly increased the already elevated Bax/Bcl2 protein expression ratio and the caspase 3 activity levels, both induced by tamoxifen. Paeoniflorin was also found to increase SIRT4 expression, and deletion of SIRT4 could significantly reverse the inhibition of cell proliferation induced by paeoniflorin and significantly decrease paeoniflorin-enhanced apoptosis induced by tamoxifen. Moreover, protein expression detection revealed that paeoniflorin enhanced the tamoxifen-induced inhibition of STAT3 activation. Besides, the deletion of SIRT4 could significantly increase STAT3 activation in the T47D and MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, paeoniflorin suppressed STAT3 activation to enhance the sensitivity of ER-positive breast cancer cells to tamoxifen through promoting SIRT4 expression.

Metals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 148
Abdulaziz A. Al-Khedhairy ◽  
Rizwan Wahab

Cancer is a cataclysmic disease that affects not only the target organ, but also the whole body. Metal-based nanoparticles (NPs) have recently emerged as a better option for the treatment of this deadly disease. Accordingly, the present work describes a means to control the growth of cancer cells by using colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) processed via homemade solutions and the characterization of these materials. The AgNPs may become an instantaneous solution for the treatment of these deadly diseases and to minimize or remove these problems. The AgNPs exhibit excellent control of the growth rate of human liver (HepG2) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells, even at a very low concentrations. The cytotoxic effects of AgNPs on HepG2 and MCF-7 cancer cells were dose dependent (2–200 μg/mL), as evaluated using MTT and NRU assays. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased by 136% and 142% in HepG2 and MCF-7 cells treated with AgNPs, respectively. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) data for both cell types (HepG2 and MCF-7) after exposure to AgNPs showed up- and downregulation of the expression of apoptotic (p53, Bax, caspase-3) and anti-apoptotic (BCl2) genes; moreover, their roles were described. This work shows that NPs were successfully prepared and controlled the growth of both types of cancer cells.

2022 ◽  
Rania M. Gomaa ◽  
Magda A. El-Sayed ◽  
Khalid Bashir Selim

Abstract New compounds of 4-anilino-6-substituted quinazoline were designed, synthesized and tested for their EGFR-TK and tumor growth inhibitory activities. The synthesized compounds were appended with amides 6 and 7, dithiocarbamate ester 8a–f or urea/thiourea 9–12 moieties at C-6 of the quinazoline ring to work as extra hydrogen bond acceptors. All the synthesized compounds were effective against EGFR-TK activity, particularly, derivatives 8a, 8f and 9 with IC50 values of 0.14±0.003, 0.119±0.003, and 0.115±0.002 μM, respectively, showed the best activities. The three compounds were further assayed for their cytotoxicity against MCF-7, H-69, SKOV-3 and LS-174T cell lines. Multikinase enzymes inhibition activity of compound 9 was further screened including VEGFR-2, c-MER, c-MET and Her-2. Compounds 8a, 8f, and 9 were docked into the ATP binding site of EGFR-TK which also had resemblance binding pattern to erlotinib with extra binding mode with Cys-773 at the gatekeeper of the enzyme. Cell cycle analyses of MCF-7 cells treated with 8a and 9 was measured in addition to other related factors such as Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-9, and PARP-1.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yang Yang ◽  
Quanfeng Zhao ◽  
Zhe Peng ◽  
Yunjiang Zhou ◽  
Miao-Miao Niu ◽  

Chemoresistance is a major therapeutic obstacle in the treatment of breast cancer. Therefore, how to overcome chemoresistance is a problem to be solved. Here, a glutathione (GSH)/cathepsin B (CB) dual-controlled nanomedicine formed by cyclic disulfide-bridged peptide (cyclic-1a) as a potent anticancer agent is reported. Under the sequential treatment of GSH and CB, cyclic-1a can efficiently self-assemble into nanofibers. In vitro studies show that cyclic-1a promotes the apoptosis of MCF-7/DOX cells by inducing the cleavages of caspase-3 and PARP. In vivo studies confirm that cyclic-1a significantly inhibits the progression of MCF-7/DOX cells-derived xenograft in nude mice, with no obvious adverse reactions. This study provides a paradigm of GSH/CB dual-controlled nanomedicine for high-efficacy and low-toxic DOX-resistant breast cancer therapy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Chiao-Yi Lin ◽  
Wen-Ting Tseng ◽  
Yao-Yin Chang ◽  
Mong-Hsun Tsai ◽  
Eric Y. Chuang ◽  

Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy and a leading cause of death among women. The majority of patients require surgery, and retrospective studies have revealed an association between anaesthetic techniques during surgery and clinical outcomes. Local anaesthetics (LAs) influence carcinogenesis by interacting with non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). However, the detailed mechanisms underlying the association between LAs and ncRNAs remain unclear.Methods: In this study, the effects of two commonly used LAs, lidocaine and bupivacaine, on the malignancy of MCF-7 breast cancer cells were investigated. The expression profiles of the microRNAs (miRNAs) that responded to treatment with LAs were determined through next-generation sequencing.Results: Data from the functional assay revealed that the LAs suppressed the proliferation of MCF-7 cells. The result of next-generation sequencing revealed that 131 miRNAs were upregulated, following treatment with the LAs. Validation using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identified miR-187-5p as a potential biomarker, and it was selected for further analyses. Prediction with bioinformatics tools and luciferase reporter assays revealed that MYB is a direct target gene of miR-187-5p. Based on the hypothesis that lncRNAs acts as miRNA sponges, the target lncRNA, DANCR, of miR-187-5p was predicted using DIANA-LncBase v2 and validated using luciferase reporter assays. In addition, the reciprocal suppressive effect between DANCR and miR-187-5p was determined.Conclusions: This study suggests that one of the anti-tumour mechanisms of lidocaine and bupivacaine is mediated through the DANCR-miR-187-5p-MYB axis. This may provide a novel molecular mechanism of tumour suppression in breast cancer.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 92
Lilianna Becan ◽  
Anna Pyra ◽  
Nina Rembiałkowska ◽  
Iwona Bryndal

Thiazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidine derivatives are considered potential therapeutic agents, particularly in the development of anticancer drugs. In this study, new 7-oxo-(2a-e), 7-chloro-(3a-e) and also three 7-amino-(4a-c) 5-trifluoromethyl-2-thioxo-thiazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidine derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their potential anticancer activity. These derivatives were characterized by spectroscopic methods and elemental analysis, and the single-crystal X-ray diffraction was further performed to confirm a 3D structure for compounds 2e and 4b. The antiproliferative activity evaluation of twelve new compounds was carried out on a variety of cell lines including four human cancer (A375, C32, DU145, MCF-7/WT) and two normal cell lines (CHO-K1 and HaCaT). Four of them (2b, 3b, 4b and 4c) were selected by the National Cancer Institute and evaluated for their in vitro anticancer activity using the NCI-60 screening program. 7-Chloro-3-phenyl-5-(trifluoromethyl)[1,3]thiazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidine-2(3H)-thione (3b) proved to be the most active among the newly synthesized compounds.

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